National Weather Service United States Department of Commerce

Increasing Risk for Flash and River Flooding Through the Weekend

A storm system will track across the central U.S. and set the stage for severe thunderstorms and widespread heavy rainfall through the weekend. There will be a threat for flash and river flooding for portions of the Southern Plains into the Upper Midwest. Read More >

Soaring Forecast

 

 

 

It is emphasized...this soaring forecast information is valid only for the RAOB site area, and frequently will not apply to other areas of the state.

 


Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Wichita, Kansas
2014 CDT Friday, April 28, 2017

This forecast is for Friday, April 28, 2017:

If the trigger temperature of 55.5 F/13.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 1530 ft MSL (0 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 48.0 F/9.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ Between 20 mph and 30 mph
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None 
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 04/30....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks... Low clouds and periods of rain expected through the weekend.

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:37:22 / 20:20:29 CDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 43 min 8 sec (823 min 8 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:28:55 CDT... 65.88 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/28/2017 at 0600 CDT

Freezing level.................. 11461 ft MSL (9931 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 14442 ft MSL (12912 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 3798 ft MSL (2268 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +19.0
K index......................... +16.5

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 18000   -9.1  15.6   200   38   20   6.9   3.8   43.4 110.1    20.5      M    M
 17000   -7.2  19.0   195   37   19   5.5   3.0   42.2 108.0    19.7      M    M
 16000   -5.6  21.9   190   34   18   5.2   2.8   40.7 105.3    18.3      M    M
 15000   -4.2  24.4   190   32   16   4.8   2.6   39.1 102.3    17.6      M    M
 14000   -2.9  26.8   185   28   14   4.3   2.4   37.2  99.0    17.3      M    M
 13000   -1.7  28.9   175   24   12   4.2   2.3   35.3  95.5    17.1      M    M
 12000   -0.6  30.9   165   20   10   3.8   2.1   33.3  91.9    17.0      M    M
 11000    0.3  32.5   150   18    9   2.8   1.5   31.0  87.8    16.6      M    M
 10000    0.6  33.1   130   15    8   0.3   0.2   27.4  81.3    15.8      M    M
  9500    0.7  33.3   125   14    7   0.6   0.3   25.9  78.6    15.4      M    M
  9000    0.8  33.4   120   14    7   1.1   0.6   24.4  75.9    15.1      M    M
  8500    1.1  34.0   110   13    7   1.7   0.9   23.1  73.5    14.9      M    M
  8000    1.4  34.5   100   13    7   3.0   1.6   21.8  71.3    14.7      M    M
  7500    1.9  35.4   090   14    7   3.6   2.0   20.8  69.5    14.4      M    M
  7000    2.3  36.1   075   15    8   1.0   0.5   19.7  67.4    14.1      M    M
  6500    2.4  36.3   065   16    8   1.1   0.6   18.3  64.9    13.3      M    M
  6000    2.7  36.9   060   17    9   1.9   1.0   17.0  62.6    12.3      M    M
  5500    3.2  37.8   050   18    9   4.3   2.4   16.0  60.8    10.9      M    M
  5000    3.7  38.7   045   19   10   4.1   2.2   15.0  59.1     9.6      M    M
  4500    4.1  39.4   045   20   10   2.2   1.2   13.9  57.0     8.6      M    M
  4000    4.6  40.3   040   21   11   3.4   1.8   13.0  55.4     7.3      M    M
  3750    4.8  40.6   035   21   11  -0.6  -0.3   12.4  54.3     6.6      M    M
  3500    4.5  40.1   030   21   11  -4.1  -2.2   11.4  52.5     6.1      M    M
  3250    4.3  39.7   030   21   11  -3.7  -2.0   10.4  50.6     5.5      M    M
  3000    4.0  39.2   025   20   10  -3.4  -1.9    9.3  48.8     4.9      M    M
  2750    3.8  38.8   020   19   10  -1.9  -1.1    8.4  47.1     4.3      M    M
  2500    3.8  38.8   015   18    9   1.6   0.9    7.6  45.7     3.7      M    M
  2250    4.0  39.2   015   16    8   3.9   2.2    7.1  44.8     3.1      M    M
  2000    4.4  39.9   015   15    8   6.1   3.3    6.7  44.1     2.6      M    M
  1750    4.9  40.8   010   12    6   9.4   5.2    6.6  43.9     2.2      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * * 

           04/28/2017 at 0900 CDT          |       04/28/2017 at 1200 CDT        
                                           |
CAPE...    +0.3    LI...       +5.3        | CAPE...    +2.3    LI...       +2.1
CINH...    -0.1    K Index... +23.4        | CINH...    -0.1    K Index... +26.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 18000 -10.8  12.6  225  29 15   7.4   4.0 | -10.8  12.6  210  34 17   7.7   4.3
 17000  -8.7  16.3  225  29 15   7.6   4.2 |  -8.6  16.5  215  33 17   7.2   3.9
 16000  -6.5  20.3  220  29 15   7.3   4.0 |  -6.5  20.3  215  32 17   7.4   4.0
 15000  -4.4  24.1  220  28 14   7.2   3.9 |  -4.4  24.1  215  30 15   7.0   3.8
 14000  -2.4  27.7  220  25 13   7.0   3.8 |  -2.6  27.3  215  26 14   6.4   3.5
 13000  -0.6  30.9  215  23 12   6.3   3.4 |  -0.9  30.4  215  22 11   6.0   3.3
 12000   1.3  34.3  205  20 10   4.9   2.7 |   0.9  33.6  210  17  9   6.5   3.6
 11000   2.5  36.5  195  18  9   4.0   2.2 |   2.7  36.9  205  15  8   6.1   3.3
 10000   3.5  38.3  180  16  8   3.5   1.9 |   4.9  40.8  195  14  7   5.7   3.1
  9500   4.0  39.2  170  15  8   3.5   1.9 |   5.6  42.1  195  14  7   5.1   2.8
  9000   4.5  40.1  165  14  7   2.9   1.6 |   6.4  43.5  195  14  7   4.3   2.4
  8500   4.8  40.6  150  13  7   2.0   1.1 |   6.9  44.4  190  13  7   3.8   2.1
  8000   5.0  41.0  140  13  7   1.2   0.6 |   7.3  45.1  185  12  6   1.4   0.8
  7500   5.2  41.4  125  12  6   0.8   0.4 |   7.4  45.3  175  11  6   0.9   0.5
  7000   5.2  41.4  105  13  7  -0.1  -0.1 |   7.3  45.1  165   9  5  -1.6  -0.9
  6500   5.2  41.4  090  15  8  -0.2  -0.1 |   7.1  44.8  140   8  4  -1.5  -0.8
  6000   5.2  41.4  080  16  8  -0.5  -0.2 |   6.9  44.4  115   9  5  -0.5  -0.3
  5500   5.2  41.4  070  18  9  -0.3  -0.2 |   6.4  43.5  090  11  6  -7.1  -3.9
  5000   5.1  41.2  060  19 10  -0.2  -0.1 |   5.6  42.1  070  14  7  -5.0  -2.8
  4500   4.9  40.8  050  21 11  -2.7  -1.5 |   4.9  40.8  065  17  9  -6.2  -3.4
  4000   4.7  40.5  045  22 12  -1.7  -0.9 |   4.1  39.4  055  21 11  -6.8  -3.8
  3750   4.5  40.1  040  23 12  -2.8  -1.5 |   3.6  38.5  050  21 11  -5.5  -3.0
  3500   4.3  39.7  035  24 12  -4.1  -2.3 |   3.3  37.9  045  21 11  -3.6  -2.0
  3250   4.0  39.2  035  24 12  -4.0  -2.2 |   3.1  37.6  040  20 11  -2.2  -1.2
  3000   3.7  38.7  030  24 12  -3.8  -2.1 |   3.1  37.6  040  20 10   2.1   1.1
  2750   3.5  38.3  025  22 12  -0.6  -0.3 |   3.4  38.1  035  19 10   5.4   2.9
  2500   3.7  38.7  025  21 11   2.9   1.6 |   3.8  38.8  035  17  9   6.9   3.8
  2250   4.0  39.2  025  19 10   6.7   3.7 |   4.4  39.9  035  16  8   8.1   4.4
  2000   4.6  40.3  025  17  9   8.7   4.8 |   5.0  41.0  035  14  7   9.0   5.0
  1750   5.2  41.4  020  15  8   6.1   3.3 |   5.7  42.3  030  13  6   9.5   5.2

           04/28/2017 at 1500 CDT          |       04/28/2017 at 1800 CDT        
                                           |
CAPE...    +2.6    LI...       +0.7        | CAPE...    +2.4    LI...       +1.2
CINH...     0.0    K Index... +25.2        | CINH...    -0.0    K Index... +25.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 18000 -11.7  10.9  210  38 20   8.2   4.5 | -12.0  10.4  205  38 20   7.1   3.9
 17000  -9.3  15.3  210  38 19   7.6   4.2 | -10.0  14.0  205  36 18   6.2   3.4
 16000  -7.0  19.4  210  35 18   6.9   3.8 |  -8.1  17.4  210  32 17   6.3   3.5
 15000  -5.0  23.0  215  32 16   6.6   3.6 |  -6.2  20.8  210  28 14   6.5   3.6
 14000  -2.6  27.3  215  26 13   6.6   3.6 |  -4.2  24.4  215  22 12   6.9   3.8
 13000  -0.7  30.7  215  21 11   6.5   3.6 |  -1.6  29.1  215  16  8   6.8   3.7
 12000   1.0  33.8  210  17  9   5.6   3.1 |   0.2  32.4  210  13  7   5.5   3.0
 11000   2.0  35.6  200  12  6   4.2   2.3 |   0.9  33.6  190  11  6   3.7   2.0
 10000   3.5  38.3  195  12  6   5.5   3.0 |   2.4  36.3  185  11  6   5.5   3.0
  9500   4.3  39.7  190  12  6   6.0   3.3 |   3.1  37.6  185  10  5   5.5   3.0
  9000   5.0  41.0  190  12  6   5.9   3.2 |   3.9  39.0  185  10  5   5.7   3.2
  8500   5.8  42.4  185  12  6   5.6   3.1 |   4.8  40.6  180  10  5   6.1   3.4
  8000   6.6  43.9  180  12  6   4.2   2.3 |   5.6  42.1  180  11  6   5.2   2.9
  7500   7.1  44.8  175  11  6   3.7   2.0 |   6.3  43.3  170  10  5   5.1   2.8
  7000   7.3  45.1  170   9  5  -2.4  -1.3 |   6.7  44.1  160   9  5   0.6   0.3
  6500   6.8  44.2  155   7  3  -3.2  -1.8 |   6.8  44.2  145   7  4   0.3   0.2
  6000   6.3  43.3  120   5  3  -4.6  -2.5 |   6.5  43.7  120   6  3  -3.5  -1.9
  5500   5.7  42.3  085   8  4  -5.1  -2.8 |   5.7  42.3  090   6  3  -7.4  -4.1
  5000   4.9  40.8  070  11  6  -5.4  -2.9 |   5.1  41.2  070   8  4  -3.5  -1.9
  4500   4.0  39.2  060  15  8  -6.1  -3.3 |   4.1  39.4  055  12  6  -7.8  -4.3
  4000   3.5  38.3  050  16  8  -3.4  -1.8 |   3.4  38.1  040  14  7  -5.0  -2.7
  3750   3.3  37.9  045  16  8  -1.1  -0.6 |   3.1  37.6  035  14  7  -2.8  -1.5
  3500   3.3  37.9  040  16  8  -0.7  -0.4 |   3.0  37.4  030  14  7  -2.6  -1.4
  3250   3.2  37.8  035  16  8  -0.9  -0.5 |   2.8  37.0  025  14  7  -2.2  -1.2
  3000   3.2  37.8  030  16  8   1.1   0.6 |   2.7  36.9  020  14  7   1.3   0.7
  2750   3.4  38.1  025  15  8   3.4   1.9 |   3.0  37.4  015  14  7   3.8   2.1
  2500   3.7  38.7  025  15  8   4.1   2.3 |   3.2  37.8  010  13  7   4.5   2.5
  2250   4.1  39.4  020  14  7   6.5   3.6 |   3.6  38.5  005  12  6   6.6   3.6
  2000   4.6  40.3  020  12  6   8.3   4.6 |   4.2  39.6  005  11  5   8.4   4.6
  1750   5.2  41.4  015  11  6   7.7   4.2 |   4.9  40.8  360   9  5   9.4   5.1
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 CST/0730 CDT 
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 CST/1930 CDT (0130 UTC).  It is not 
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance. 

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken at the Wichita Gliderport at 

                   North Latitude: 37 deg 45 min 48.420 sec
                   West Longitude: 97 deg 10 min 41.220 sec
                   Elevation: 1380 feet (420 meters)

and may not be representative of other locations around the Wichita area.  Note
that some elevations in numerical weather prediction models differ from actual
station elevations, which can lead to data which appear to be below ground.
Erroneous data such as these should not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in 
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive 
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of 
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it 
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above 
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain 
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger 
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of 
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158 
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions. 

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the 
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel's initial temperature is the forecast maximum 
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It 
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures 
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet 
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.  

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.
  
Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights: 
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the 
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor  

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which 
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough 
     movements.

051515