National Weather Service United States Department of Commerce

Z/R Relationship Table

{ "timestamp":"Mon May 04 01:29:01 EDT 2015", "zrData":[ { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"BUF", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"233 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.44", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.44", "bcfNumPairs":"233", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"CCX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"824 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.21", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.21", "bcfNumPairs":"824", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"CLE", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"843 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.37", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.37", "bcfNumPairs":"843", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"DTX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"91 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.59", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.59", "bcfNumPairs":"91", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"FCX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"1620 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.45", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.45", "bcfNumPairs":"1620", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"GRR", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"14 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 5 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.27", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"5-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.27", "bcfNumPairs":"14", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"HPX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"672 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.25", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.25", "bcfNumPairs":"672", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"HTX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"537 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.13", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#00CC00", "bcf":"1.13", "bcfNumPairs":"537", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"ILN", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"1613 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.21", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.21", "bcfNumPairs":"1613", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"ILX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"17 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 5 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.09", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"5-hr", "bcfColor":"#00CC00", "bcf":"1.09", "bcfNumPairs":"17", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"IND", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"712 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.21", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.21", "bcfNumPairs":"712", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"IWX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"10 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 3 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 0.97", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"3-hr", "bcfColor":"#00CC00", "bcf":"0.97", "bcfNumPairs":"10", "bcfDesc":"unbiased estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"JKL", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"2185 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.33", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.33", "bcfNumPairs":"2185", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"LOT", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"17 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 3 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 0.73", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"3-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"0.73", "bcfNumPairs":"17", "bcfDesc":"over-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"LSX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"199 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.06", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#00CC00", "bcf":"1.06", "bcfNumPairs":"199", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"LVX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"946 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.53", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.53", "bcfNumPairs":"946", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"LWX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"358 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 2.46", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"2.46", "bcfNumPairs":"358", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"MRX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"1156 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.44", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.44", "bcfNumPairs":"1156", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"OHX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"880 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.02", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#00CC00", "bcf":"1.02", "bcfNumPairs":"880", "bcfDesc":"unbiased estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"PAH", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"552 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 0.95", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#00CC00", "bcf":"0.95", "bcfNumPairs":"552", "bcfDesc":"over-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"PBZ", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"1514 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.29", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.29", "bcfNumPairs":"1514", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-odd", "id":"RLX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"200", "zrExp":"1.6", "icon":"Gen Stratiform ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R icon", "rate":"0.11", "formulaName":"Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R", "bcfTitle":"2432 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.38", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#CC0000", "bcf":"1.38", "bcfNumPairs":"2432", "bcfDesc":"under-estimation" }, { "bgstyle":"row-even", "id":"VWX", "cellbg":"", "update":"1am EDT 04-May-2015", "zrCoef":"300", "zrExp":"1.4", "icon":"Deep Convective ZR.png", "iconAlt":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R icon", "rate":"0.09", "formulaName":"Summer Deep Convection Z/R", "bcfTitle":"571 positive gage-radar pairings found over the past 168 hours", "bcfTitle2":" suggest that the radar estimates need to be multiplied by 1.04", "bcfTitle3":" to bring them in line with what the gages are reporting.", "bcfDur":"168-hr", "bcfColor":"#00CC00", "bcf":"1.04", "bcfNumPairs":"571", "bcfDesc":"unbiased estimation" }] }
 

 

The table above shows WSR-88D Z/R relationships for sites used in the OHRFC radar mosaic. A Z/R relationship is a empirical formula that is used to estimate rainfall rates from reflectivity signal strength. Parameters that can be varied at each radar site are those shown in red.

Most stratiform rain events in the Ohio River Valley have a reflectivity signal strength of 20-40dBZ with occasional peaks to 45dBZ, but rarely anything higher (that isn't "brightbanding"). For more information and recommendations regarding Z/R relationships, see the Radar Operations Center's Handbook. Refer to Section 7.7.2 Z-R Coefficients. (This handbook is for agency use only, and requires a NOAA LDAP login.)

OHRFC recommends using the Marshall/Palmer Stratiform Z/R for all rain events that are mostly stratiform in nature, including events with embedded thunderstorms. Also, we recommend this Z/R for convective events where significant stratification occurs downwind of convection (such as lines of thunderstorms with a stratiform rain area behind the front).

OHRFC recommends only using the Summertime Deep Convection Z/R for typical events in July and August when isolated convection occurs with little or no blow-off (anvil) precip. Many forecasters have the notion that anytime thunderstorms might occur in stratiform rain, then the radar should be in this Deep Convection mode. OHRFC strongly disagrees and recommends the Marshall/Palmer Z/R for most rain events except for the isolated thunderstorms that occur without stratification -- which occurs most often in July and August..

OHRFC recommends using the Cool Season Stratiform Z/R for wintry events which might contain frozen/freezing precipitation, or where brightbanding is a possibility, and where lightning would occur only in rare "thunder-snow" situations.

OHRFC recommends using the Tropical Z/R or the Marshall/Palmer Z/R for remnants of hurricanes or tropical storms that move into our basin.

The bias correction factor can only be computed if there are at least 10 gage-radar pairs with both values 0.03 inches or more. Sometimes, data has to be searched back several hours to find at least 10 such pairs. (The actual number of pairs used in computing this bias factor is shown following the # sign.) The number of hours searched is shown preceding the bias factor. Bias factors are color-coded green if the radar estimates are within 15% tolerance of what the gages verify, or red otherwise. Values over 1.0 mean the radar is under-estimating. Values under 1.0 means the radar is over-estimating. This may seem counter-intuitive. To get the radar estimates to verify well with the gage values, the radar estimates would have to be multiplied by this bias factor shown for each radar.

Any cells with a yellow background under the "Last Reported" column indicate that the latest report is not up-to-date (perhaps the radar is down for maintenance).