National Weather Service United States Department of Commerce

A Variety of Weather Hazards This Thanksgiving

A variety of weather hazards can be expected this Thanksgiving. Critical fire weather threats are likely in parts of southern California and the Southwest. Meanwhile, isolated strong to severe thunderstorms will be possible from east and southeast Texas into Louisiana. Finally, a cold front will pass through the East with some rain showers, thunderstorms and a wintry mix for northern New England. Read More >

Beginning in May 2019, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule changes allowed for the expansion of Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) from the existing maximum of 90 characters to a maximum of 360 characters on 4G and newer wireless networks as well as Spanish language WEA.  In support of these changes, <info> blocks in National Weather Service (NWS) Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages may additionally contain the <language> element, a WEAHandling parameter, and a CMAMlongtext parameter.  WEA messages continue to be limited to 90 characters on 3G and earlier networks, so NWS will continue to provide the 90 character CMAMtext parameter.  Here is how these values will be embedded in an <info> block.

 

<info>
<language>en-US</language>
...

<parameter>
<valueName>WEAHandling</valueName>
<value>Imminent Threat</value>
</parameter>

<parameter>
<valueName>CMAMlongtext</valueName>
<value>National Weather Service: TORNADO WARNING in this area until 12:00 AM EDT. Take shelter now in a basement or an interior room on the lowest floor of a sturdy building. If you are outdoors, in a mobile home, or in a vehicle, move to the closest substantial shelter and protect yourself from flying debris. Check media.</value>
</parameter>

<parameter>
<valueName>CMAMtext</valueName>
<value>NWS: TORNADO WARNING in this area til 12:00 AM EDT. Take shelter now. Check media.</value>
</parameter>

...
<info>

 

Spanish language WEA messages are enabled by the addition of second <info> block that is identical to the first block, except the <language> element will contain a value of "es-US” and WEA text message parameter values will be in the Spanish language.  The following example shows how theses values may be embedded in an <info> block.

 

<info>
<language>es-US</language>
...

<parameter>
<valueName>WEAHandling</valueName>
<value>Imminent Threat</value>
</parameter>

<parameter>
<valueName>CMAMlongtext</valueName>
<value>Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia: AVISO DE TORNADO en efecto hasta las 12:00 AM EDT. Busque refugio ahora en un sotano o en el interior de un cuarto en el nivel mas bajo de un edificio seguro. Si esta al aire libre, en una casa movil, o en un vehiculo, debe ir al edificio seguro mas cercano y protegerse de proyectiles. Consulte los medios informativos.</value>
</parameter>

<parameter>
<valueName>CMAMtext</valueName>
<value>SNM: AVISO DE TORNADO hasta las 10:33 AM CDT. Refugiese ahora. Consulte medios informativos.</value>
</parameter>

...
<info>

 

The following are example CAP messages in their entirety.  

 

*** Example 1 ***


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<alert xmlns:ns2="http://gov.fema.ipaws.services/caprequest" xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:emergency:cap:1.2" xmlns:ns4="http://gov.fema.ipaws.services/IPAWS_CAPService/" xmlns:ns3="http://gov.fema.ipaws.services/capresponse">
    <identifier>NWS-IDP-DEV-3889295-3321272</identifier>
    <sender>w-nws.webmaster@noaa.gov</sender>
    <sent>2020-01-23T08:23:00-06:00</sent>
    <status>Actual</status>
    <msgType>Alert</msgType>
    <scope>Public</scope>
    <code>IPAWSv1.0</code>
    <note></note>
    <info>
        <language>en-US</language>
        <category>Met</category>
        <event>Tornado Warning</event>
        <responseType>Shelter</responseType>
        <urgency>Immediate</urgency>
        <severity>Extreme</severity>
        <certainty>Observed</certainty>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>SAME</valueName>
            <value>TOR</value>
        </eventCode>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>NationalWeatherService</valueName>
            <value>TOW</value>
        </eventCode>
        <effective>2020-01-23T08:23:00-06:00</effective>
        <onset>2020-01-23T08:23:00-06:00</onset>
        <expires>2020-01-23T08:28:00-06:00</expires>
        <senderName>NWS Shreveport LA</senderName>
        <headline>Tornado Warning issued January 23 at 2:23PM CST until January 23 at 8:28AM CST by NWS Shreveport LA</headline>
        <description>The National Weather Service in Shreveport has issued a

* Tornado Warning for...
Southern Caldwell Parish in north central Louisiana...
Northeastern La Salle Parish in north central Louisiana...

* Until 228 PM

* At 223 PM CDT, a large and extremely dangerous tornado was located
near Midway, or 22 miles northeast of Pineville, moving northeast
at 40 mph.

This is a PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION. TAKE COVER NOW!

HAZARD...Damaging tornado.

SOURCE...Radar indicated rotation.

IMPACT...You are in a life-threatening situation. Flying debris
may be deadly to those caught without shelter. Mobile
homes will be destroyed. Considerable damage to homes,
businesses, and vehicles is likely and complete
destruction is possible.

* The tornado will be near...
Jena around 410 PM CDT.
Midway around 415 PM CDT.

Other locations impacted by this tornadic thunderstorm include Nebo.</description>
        <instruction>To repeat, a large, extremely dangerous and potentially deadly
tornado is developing. To protect your life, TAKE COVER NOW! Move to
a basement or an interior room on the lowest floor of a sturdy
building. Avoid windows. If you are outdoors, in a mobile home, or in
a vehicle, move to the closest substantial shelter and protect
yourself from flying debris.</instruction>
        <web>http://www.weather.gov</web>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventMotionDescription</valueName>
            <value>2020-01-23T15:01:00.000-06:00...storm...209DEG...35KT...31.6,-92.19 </value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>hailSize</valueName>
            <value>1.75</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDetection</valueName>
            <value>RADAR INDICATED</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDamageThreat</valueName>
            <value>CONSIDERABLE</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>VTEC</valueName>
            <value>/O.NEW.KSHV.TO.W.0048.200123T1423Z-200123T1428Z/</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>EAS-ORG</valueName>
            <value>WXR</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>PIL</valueName>
            <value>SHVTORSHV</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>EAS</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>NWEM</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventEndingTime</valueName>
            <value>2020-01-23T08:28:00-06:00</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>WEAHandling</valueName>
            <value>Imminent Threat</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMlongtext</valueName>
            <value>National Weather Service: TORNADO WARNING in this area until 8:28 AM CST. Take shelter now in a basement or an interior room on the lowest floor of a sturdy building. If you are outdoors, in a mobile home, or in a vehicle, move to the closest substantial shelter and protect yourself from flying debris. Check media.</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMtext</valueName>
            <value>NWS: TORNADO WARNING in this area til 8:28 AM CST. Take shelter now. Check media.</value>
        </parameter>
        <area>
            <areaDesc>La Salle, LA; Caldwell, LA</areaDesc>
            <polygon>31.72,-92.01 31.66,-92.04 31.55,-92.15 31.6,-92.28 31.93,-92.12 31.92,-92.01 31.72,-92.01</polygon>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC021</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022021</value>
            </geocode>
        </area>
    </info>
    <info>
        <language>es-US</language>
        <category>Met</category>
        <event>Tornado Warning</event>
        <responseType>Shelter</responseType>
        <urgency>Immediate</urgency>
        <severity>Extreme</severity>
        <certainty>Observed</certainty>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>SAME</valueName>
            <value>TOR</value>
        </eventCode>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>NationalWeatherService</valueName>
            <value>TOW</value>
        </eventCode>
        <effective>2020-01-23T08:23:00-06:00</effective>
        <onset>2020-01-23T08:23:00-06:00</onset>
        <expires>2020-01-23T08:28:00-06:00</expires>
        <senderName>NWS Shreveport LA</senderName>
        <headline>Tornado Warning issued January 23 at 2:23PM CST until January 23 at 8:28AM CST by NWS Shreveport LA</headline>
        <description>The National Weather Service in Shreveport has issued a

* Tornado Warning for...
Southern Caldwell Parish in north central Louisiana...
Northeastern La Salle Parish in north central Louisiana...

* Until 228 PM

* At 223 PM CDT, a large and extremely dangerous tornado was located
near Midway, or 22 miles northeast of Pineville, moving northeast
at 40 mph.

This is a PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION. TAKE COVER NOW!

HAZARD...Damaging tornado.

SOURCE...Radar indicated rotation.

IMPACT...You are in a life-threatening situation. Flying debris
may be deadly to those caught without shelter. Mobile
homes will be destroyed. Considerable damage to homes,
businesses, and vehicles is likely and complete
destruction is possible.

* The tornado will be near...
Jena around 410 PM CDT.
Midway around 415 PM CDT.

Other locations impacted by this tornadic thunderstorm include Nebo.</description>
        <instruction>To repeat, a large, extremely dangerous and potentially deadly
tornado is developing. To protect your life, TAKE COVER NOW! Move to
a basement or an interior room on the lowest floor of a sturdy
building. Avoid windows. If you are outdoors, in a mobile home, or in
a vehicle, move to the closest substantial shelter and protect
yourself from flying debris.</instruction>
        <web>http://www.weather.gov</web>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventMotionDescription</valueName>
            <value>2020-01-23T15:01:00.000-06:00...storm...209DEG...35KT...31.6,-92.19 </value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>hailSize</valueName>
            <value>1.75</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDetection</valueName>
            <value>RADAR INDICATED</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDamageThreat</valueName>
            <value>CONSIDERABLE</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>VTEC</valueName>
            <value>/O.NEW.KSHV.TO.W.0048.200123T1423Z-200123T1428Z/</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>EAS-ORG</valueName>
            <value>WXR</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>PIL</valueName>
            <value>SHVTORSHV</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>EAS</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>NWEM</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventEndingTime</valueName>
            <value>2020-01-23T08:28:00-06:00</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMlongtext</valueName>
            <value>Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia: AVISO DE TORNADO en efecto hasta las 8:28 AM CST. Busque refugio ahora en un sotano o en el interior de un cuarto en el nivel mas bajo de un edificio seguro. Si esta al aire libre, en una casa movil, o en un vehiculo, debe ir al edificio seguro mas cercano y protegerse de proyectiles. Consulte los medios informativos.</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMtext</valueName>
            <value>SNM: AVISO DE TORNADO hasta las 8:28 AM CST. Refugiese ahora. Consulte medios informativos.</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>WEAHandling</valueName>
            <value>Imminent Threat</value>
        </parameter>
        <area>
            <areaDesc>La Salle, LA; Caldwell, LA</areaDesc>
            <polygon>31.72,-92.01 31.66,-92.04 31.55,-92.15 31.6,-92.28 31.93,-92.12 31.92,-92.01 31.72,-92.01</polygon>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC021</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022021</value>
            </geocode>
        </area>
    </info>
</alert>

 

*** End Example 1 ***

 

*** Example 2 ***

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<alert xmlns:ns2="http://gov.fema.ipaws.services/caprequest" xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:emergency:cap:1.2" xmlns:ns4="http://gov.fema.ipaws.services/IPAWS_CAPService/" xmlns:ns3="http://gov.fema.ipaws.services/capresponse">
    <identifier>NWS-IDP-DEV-3889297-3321274</identifier>
    <sender>w-nws.webmaster@noaa.gov</sender>
    <sent>2020-01-23T08:24:00-06:00</sent>
    <status>Actual</status>
    <msgType>Update</msgType>
    <scope>Public</scope>
    <code>IPAWSv1.0</code>
    <note></note>
    <references>w-nws.webmaster@noaa.gov,NWS-IDP-DEV-3889295-3321272,2020-01-23T08:23:00-06:00</references>
    <info>
        <language>en-US</language>
        <category>Met</category>
        <event>Tornado Warning</event>
        <responseType>Shelter</responseType>
        <urgency>Immediate</urgency>
        <severity>Extreme</severity>
        <certainty>Observed</certainty>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>SAME</valueName>
            <value>TOR</value>
        </eventCode>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>NationalWeatherService</valueName>
            <value>TOW</value>
        </eventCode>
        <effective>2020-01-23T08:24:00-06:00</effective>
        <onset>2020-01-23T14:24:00-06:00</onset>
        <expires>2020-01-23T08:29:00-06:00</expires>
        <senderName>NWS Shreveport LA</senderName>
        <headline>Tornado Warning issued January 23 at 2:24PM CST until May 8 at 8:08AM CDT by NWS Shreveport LA</headline>
        <description>...A TORNADO WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL 445 PM CDT FOR SOUTHERN
CALDWELL AND NORTHEASTERN LA SALLE PARISHES...

At 406 PM CDT, a confirmed large and destructive tornado was located
near Midway, or 24 miles northwest of Larto, moving northeast at 35
mph.

TORNADO EMERGENCY for the cities of Midway and Jena. This is a
PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION. TAKE COVER NOW!

HAZARD...Deadly tornado.

SOURCE...Weather spotters confirmed tornado.

IMPACT...You are in a life-threatening situation. Flying debris may
be deadly to those caught without shelter. Mobile homes
will be destroyed. Considerable damage to homes,
businesses, and vehicles is likely and complete destruction
is possible.

The tornado will be near...
Jena and Midway around 415 PM CDT.</description>
        <instruction>To repeat, a large, extremely dangerous, and potentially deadly
tornado is on the ground. To protect your life, TAKE COVER NOW! Move
to an interior room on the lowest floor of a sturdy building. Avoid
windows. If in a mobile home, a vehicle or outdoors, move to the
closest substantial shelter and protect yourself from flying debris.</instruction>
        <web>http://www.weather.gov</web>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventMotionDescription</valueName>
            <value>2020-01-23T15:06:00.000-06:00...storm...205DEG...31KT...31.63,-92.18 </value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>hailSize</valueName>
            <value>1.75</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDetection</valueName>
            <value>OBSERVED</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDamageThreat</valueName>
            <value>CATASTROPHIC</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>NWSheadline</valueName>
            <value>TORNADO EMERGENCY FOR THE CITIES OF MIDWAY AND JENA</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>VTEC</valueName>
            <value>/O.CON.KSHV.TO.W.0048.000000T0000Z-170508T1308Z/</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>EAS-ORG</valueName>
            <value>WXR</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>PIL</valueName>
            <value>SHVSVSSHV</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>EAS</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>NWEM</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventEndingTime</valueName>
            <value>2017-05-08T08:08:00-05:00</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>WEAHandling</valueName>
            <value>Imminent Threat</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMlongtext</valueName>
            <value>National Weather Service: TORNADO EMERGENCY until 8:08 AM CDT. Tornado spotted in this area. This is a life-threatening situation. Take shelter now in a basement or an interior room on the lowest floor of a sturdy building. If you are outdoors, in a mobile home, or in a vehicle move to the closest substantial shelter and protect yourself from flying debris.</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMtext</valueName>
            <value>NWS: TORNADO EMERGENCY til 8:08 AM CDT. Tornado spotted in this area. Take shelter now!</value>
        </parameter>
        <area>
            <areaDesc>La Salle, LA; Caldwell, LA</areaDesc>
            <polygon>31.72,-92.01 31.66,-92.04 31.59,-92.11 31.63,-92.26 31.93,-92.12 31.92,-92.01 31.72,-92.01</polygon>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC021</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022021</value>
            </geocode>
        </area>
    </info>
    <info>
        <language>es-US</language>
        <category>Met</category>
        <event>Tornado Warning</event>
        <responseType>Shelter</responseType>
        <urgency>Immediate</urgency>
        <severity>Extreme</severity>
        <certainty>Observed</certainty>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>SAME</valueName>
            <value>TOR</value>
        </eventCode>
        <eventCode>
            <valueName>NationalWeatherService</valueName>
            <value>TOW</value>
        </eventCode>
        <effective>2020-01-23T08:24:00-06:00</effective>
        <onset>2020-01-23T14:24:00-06:00</onset>
        <expires>2020-01-23T08:29:00-06:00</expires>
        <senderName>NWS Shreveport LA</senderName>
        <headline>Tornado Warning issued January 23 at 2:24PM CST until May 8 at 8:08AM CDT by NWS Shreveport LA</headline>
        <description>...A TORNADO WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL 445 PM CDT FOR SOUTHERN
CALDWELL AND NORTHEASTERN LA SALLE PARISHES...

At 406 PM CDT, a confirmed large and destructive tornado was located
near Midway, or 24 miles northwest of Larto, moving northeast at 35
mph.

TORNADO EMERGENCY for the cities of Midway and Jena. This is a
PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION. TAKE COVER NOW!

HAZARD...Deadly tornado.

SOURCE...Weather spotters confirmed tornado.

IMPACT...You are in a life-threatening situation. Flying debris may
be deadly to those caught without shelter. Mobile homes
will be destroyed. Considerable damage to homes,
businesses, and vehicles is likely and complete destruction
is possible.

The tornado will be near...
Jena and Midway around 415 PM CDT.</description>
        <instruction>To repeat, a large, extremely dangerous, and potentially deadly
tornado is on the ground. To protect your life, TAKE COVER NOW! Move
to an interior room on the lowest floor of a sturdy building. Avoid
windows. If in a mobile home, a vehicle or outdoors, move to the
closest substantial shelter and protect yourself from flying debris.</instruction>
        <web>http://www.weather.gov</web>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventMotionDescription</valueName>
            <value>2020-01-23T15:06:00.000-06:00...storm...205DEG...31KT...31.63,-92.18 </value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>hailSize</valueName>
            <value>1.75</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDetection</valueName>
            <value>OBSERVED</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>tornadoDamageThreat</valueName>
            <value>CATASTROPHIC</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>NWSheadline</valueName>
            <value>TORNADO EMERGENCY FOR THE CITIES OF MIDWAY AND JENA</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>VTEC</valueName>
            <value>/O.CON.KSHV.TO.W.0048.000000T0000Z-170508T1308Z/</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>EAS-ORG</valueName>
            <value>WXR</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>PIL</valueName>
            <value>SHVSVSSHV</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>EAS</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>BLOCKCHANNEL</valueName>
            <value>NWEM</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>eventEndingTime</valueName>
            <value>2017-05-08T08:08:00-05:00</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMlongtext</valueName>
            <value>SNM: EMERGENCIA DE TORNADO hasta las 8:08 AM CDT. Un tornado ha sido detectado en esta area. Su vida esta en peligro. Busque refugio en un sotano o en el interior de un cuarto del nivel mas bajo de un edificio seguro. Si esta al aire libre, en una casa movil, o en un vehiculo, debe ir al edificio seguro mas cercano y protegerse de proyectiles.</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>CMAMtext</valueName>
            <value>SNM: EMERGENCIA DE TORNADO hasta las 8:08 AM CDT. Tornado fue detectado. Refugiarse ahora.</value>
        </parameter>
        <parameter>
            <valueName>WEAHandling</valueName>
            <value>Imminent Threat</value>
        </parameter>
        <area>
            <areaDesc>La Salle, LA; Caldwell, LA</areaDesc>
            <polygon>31.72,-92.01 31.66,-92.04 31.59,-92.11 31.63,-92.26 31.93,-92.12 31.92,-92.01 31.72,-92.01</polygon>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>UGC</valueName>
                <value>LAC021</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022059</value>
            </geocode>
            <geocode>
                <valueName>SAME</valueName>
                <value>022021</value>
            </geocode>
        </area>
    </info>
</alert>

 

*** End Example 2 ***

 

updated January 23, 2020