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The Fujita Tornado Damage Scale




The Fujita Tornado Scale, usually referred to as the F-Scale, classifies tornadoes based on the resulting damage. This scale was developed by Dr. T. Theodore Fujita (University of Chicago) in 1971.


F0 40-72 mph
64-116 km/h
MINIMAL DAMAGE: Some damage to chimneys, TV antennas, roof shingles, trees, and windows. 29%
F1 73-112 mph
117-180 km/h
MODERATE DAMAGE: Automobiles overturned, carports destroyed, trees uprooted. 40%
F2 113-157 mph
181-253 km/h
MAJOR DAMAGE: Roofs blown off homes, sheds and outbuildings demolished, mobile homes overturned. 24%
F3 158-206 mph
254-332 km/h
SEVERE DAMAGE: Exterior walls and roofs blown off homes. Metal buildings collapsed or are severely damaged. Forests and farmland flattened. 6%
F4 207-260 mph
333-418 km/h
DEVASTATING DAMAGE: Few walls, if any, standing in well-built homes. Large steel and concrete missiles thrown far distances. 2%
F5 261-318 mph
419-512 km/h
INCREDIBLE DAMAGE: Homes leveled with all debris removed. Schools, motels, and other larger structures have considerable damage with exterior walls and roofs gone. Top stories demolished. less than 1%

This scale courtesy of University of Wisconsin-Madison's Cooperate Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies