National Weather Service United States Department of Commerce

Fujita Damage Intensity Scale

  • F0 - F1 Weak Tornado
  • F2 - F3 Strong Tornado
  • F4 - F5 Violent Tornado


(F0) Gale tornado (40-72 mph)

Light damage. Some damage to chimneys; break branches off trees; push
over shallow-rooted trees; damage sign boards.


(F1) Moderate tornado (73-112 mph)

Moderate damage. The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed;
peel surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned;
moving autos pushed off the roads.


(F2) Significant tornado (113-157 mph)

Considerable damage. Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished;
boxcars pushed over; large trees snapped or uprooted; light-object missiles


(F3) Severe tornado (158-206 mph)

Severe damage. Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses;
trains overturned; most trees in forest uprooted; heavy cars lifted off the ground
and thrown.


(F4) Devastating tornado (207-260)

Devastating damage. Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak
foundations blown off some distance; cars thrown and large missiles generated.


(F5) Incredible tornado (261-318 mph)

Incredible damage. Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried
considerable distance to disintegrate; automobile sized missiles fly through
the air in excess of 100 meters(109 yds); trees debarked; incredible phenomena
will occur.

(from J. Atmos. Sci., August 1981, pg 1517-1519)