National Weather Service United States Department of Commerce

Soaring Forecast for Albuquerque NM
National Weather Service Albuquerque NM
1914 MDT Saturday November 5 2022

This forecast is for Sunday, November 6, 2022:

If the trigger temperature of 62.3 F/16.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 383 ft/min (1.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10952 ft MSL (5271 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 66.0 F/19.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1245 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8921 ft MSL (3240 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 11/07....... Fair


Remarks... 

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:32:36 / 17:07:34 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 34 min 58 sec (634 min 58 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:50:05 MST... 38.77 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/06/2022 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 15280 ft MSL (9599 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 23708 ft MSL (18027 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16046 ft MSL (10365 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +13.1
K index......................... -16.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -72.2 -98.0   260   44   22  -0.2  -0.1   72.2 162.0    31.0      M    M
 45000  -70.6 -95.1   245   38   20   7.7   4.2   52.0 125.7    20.7      M    M
 40000  -59.2 -74.6   245   41   21   8.1   4.5   47.4 117.3    19.0      M    M
 38000  -53.3 -63.9   250   43   22   8.7   4.8   46.0 114.7    18.7      M    M
 36000  -48.1 -54.6   250   44   23   8.7   4.8   45.3 113.6    18.7      M    M
 34000  -42.9 -45.2   255   46   24   8.6   4.7   44.3 111.8    18.4      M    M
 32000  -37.7 -35.9   260   47   24   8.6   4.7   43.5 110.3    18.3      M    M
 30000  -32.3 -26.1   265   50   26   9.2   5.0   42.9 109.1    18.3      M    M
 29000  -29.6 -21.3   265   51   26   9.2   5.0   42.6 108.7    18.3      M    M
 28000  -26.8 -16.2   270   53   27   9.2   5.1   42.5 108.5    18.4      M    M
 27000  -24.2 -11.6   270   54   28   8.6   4.7   42.1 107.8    18.3      M    M
 26000  -21.6  -6.9   270   54   28   8.5   4.7   41.6 106.9    18.2      M    M
 25000  -19.1  -2.4   270   54   28   8.5   4.7   41.2 106.2    18.0      M    M
 24000  -16.0   3.2   270   53   28   7.9   4.3   40.5 104.9    17.7      M    M
 23000  -13.6   7.5   270   53   27   7.9   4.3   39.8 103.7    17.4      M    M
 22000  -11.2  11.8   265   52   27   8.0   4.4   39.2 102.6    17.1      M    M
 21000   -9.0  15.8   265   51   26   7.1   3.9   38.4 101.0    16.5      M    M
 20000   -6.9  19.6   265   50   26   7.0   3.9   37.4  99.3    15.9      M    M
 19500   -5.9  21.4   265   49   25   7.0   3.8   36.9  98.5    15.6      M    M
 19000   -4.8  23.4   265   48   25   6.4   3.5   36.5  97.8    15.3      M    M
 18500   -4.0  24.8   265   48   25   4.9   2.7   35.7  96.3    14.7      M    M
 18000   -3.3  26.1   270   47   24   5.0   2.8   34.9  94.9    14.0      M    M
 17500   -2.6  27.3   270   46   24   4.5   2.5   34.1  93.4    13.4      M    M
 17000   -1.9  28.6   270   45   23   4.5   2.5   33.2  91.7    12.6      M    M
 16500   -1.3  29.7   270   45   23   4.2   2.3   32.3  90.2    11.9      M    M
 16000   -0.7  30.7   270   44   23   3.3   1.8   31.3  88.3    11.0      M    M
 15500   -0.2  31.6   270   44   23   3.6   2.0   30.2  86.4    10.1      M    M
 15000    0.1  32.2   270   44   22   1.5   0.8   29.0  84.2     9.1      M    M
 14500    0.4  32.7   270   43   22   1.6   0.9   27.7  81.8     7.9      M    M
 14000    0.6  33.1   270   42   22   2.0   1.1   26.4  79.4     6.7      M    M
 13500    0.9  33.6   270   41   21   2.2   1.2   25.1  77.2     5.5      M    M
 13000    1.1  34.0   270   39   20   2.3   1.3   23.9  75.0     4.4      M    M
 12500    1.5  34.7   275   38   19   2.5   1.4   22.7  72.8     3.2      M    M
 12000    1.8  35.2   280   36   19   3.0   1.6   21.5  70.8     2.1      M    M
 11500    2.3  36.1   285   35   18   3.9   2.1   20.6  69.0     1.2      M    M
 11000    2.8  37.0   290   34   18   4.1   2.2   19.6  67.3     0.2      M    M
 10500    3.5  38.3   290   33   17   4.6   2.5   18.8  65.8    -0.6    359  1.8
 10250    3.8  38.8   295   33   17   4.4   2.4   18.4  65.1    -1.0    342  1.7
 10000    4.1  39.4   295   33   17   4.9   2.7   18.0  64.3    -1.4    325  1.7
  9750    4.5  40.1   300   32   16   5.7   3.1   17.6  63.7    -1.7    305  1.6
  9500    4.9  40.8   300   31   16   5.7   3.1   17.3  63.1    -2.0    285  1.4
  9250    5.4  41.7   300   30   16   5.7   3.1   17.0  62.6    -2.3    265  1.3
  9000    6.1  43.0   300   27   14   4.2   2.3   16.2  61.2    -3.1    228  1.2
  8750    6.4  43.5   300   25   13   4.1   2.3   15.8  60.4    -3.5    211  1.1
  8500    6.8  44.2   300   23   12   5.0   2.7   15.4  59.7    -3.9    194  1.0
  8250    7.1  44.8   300   20   10   3.1   1.7   15.0  59.0    -4.3    175  0.9
  8000    7.2  45.0   300   16    8   0.6   0.3   14.3  57.8    -4.9    165  0.8
  7750    7.3  45.1   295   13    7   1.6   0.9   13.7  56.6    -5.6    156  0.8
  7500    7.4  45.3   285   10    5   0.1   0.0   13.0  55.5    -6.2    146  0.7
  7250    7.4  45.3   290    7    4   1.1   0.6   12.3  54.1    -7.0    139  0.7
  7000    7.6  45.7   275    5    2   3.4   1.8   11.7  53.1    -7.6    125  0.6
  6750    7.8  46.0   245    3    2   2.3   1.2   11.2  52.2    -8.1    112  0.6
  6500    8.0  46.4   200    3    2   4.3   2.4   10.7  51.3    -8.6     98  0.5
  6250    8.1  46.6   190    3    2  -4.2  -2.3   10.1  50.3    -9.2     86  0.4
  6000    7.1  44.8   180    3    2 -23.7 -13.0    8.3  47.0   -11.1    111  0.6
  5750    6.0  42.8   170    4    2  12.4   6.8    6.5  43.7   -12.9    137  0.7
  5500      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * * 

           11/06/2022 at 0800 MST          |       11/06/2022 at 1100 MST        
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +13.7        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +12.7
CINH...     0.0    K Index... -29.8        | CINH...     0.0    K Index... -30.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -71.4 -96.5  255  43 22  -0.7  -0.4 | -70.5 -94.9  250  46 24  -0.3  -0.2
 45000 -70.6 -95.1  240  40 21   7.6   4.2 | -69.5 -93.1  235  43 22   6.3   3.5
 40000 -58.6 -73.5  230  44 23   8.8   4.8 | -59.5 -75.1  225  55 28   8.6   4.7
 38000 -53.4 -64.1  240  43 22   8.7   4.8 | -54.2 -65.6  230  53 27   8.7   4.8
 36000 -48.2 -54.8  245  42 22   8.7   4.8 | -49.0 -56.2  235  51 26   8.7   4.8
 34000 -43.1 -45.6  245  44 23   8.3   4.6 | -43.8 -46.8  235  50 26   8.6   4.7
 32000 -38.1 -36.6  245  48 25   8.3   4.6 | -38.6 -37.5  235  50 26   8.7   4.7
 30000 -32.7 -26.9  250  49 25   9.3   5.1 | -33.2 -27.8  240  49 25   9.1   5.0
 29000 -29.9 -21.8  255  49 25   9.3   5.1 | -30.4 -22.7  240  48 25   9.1   5.0
 28000 -27.1 -16.8  255  50 26   9.4   5.1 | -27.7 -17.9  245  48 25   9.2   5.0
 27000 -24.4 -11.9  260  50 26   9.0   4.9 | -25.0 -13.0  245  47 24   9.0   4.9
 26000 -21.7  -7.1  260  50 26   9.0   4.9 | -21.6  -6.9  250  47 24   9.0   4.9
 25000 -18.3  -0.9  260  50 26   9.1   5.0 | -18.9  -2.0  250  47 24   9.0   4.9
 24000 -15.8   3.6  260  50 26   8.0   4.4 | -16.4   2.5  250  48 25   8.3   4.6
 23000 -13.5   7.7  260  50 26   8.0   4.4 | -13.9   7.0  250  49 25   8.3   4.6
 22000 -11.1  12.0  260  50 26   8.1   4.4 | -11.4  11.5  250  49 25   8.5   4.7
 21000  -8.9  16.0  260  50 26   6.9   3.8 |  -9.3  15.3  255  48 25   6.4   3.5
 20000  -6.8  19.8  260  49 25   6.8   3.8 |  -7.3  18.9  255  47 24   6.4   3.5
 19500  -5.8  21.6  260  49 25   6.8   3.7 |  -6.4  20.5  255  46 24   6.3   3.5
 19000  -4.8  23.4  260  48 25   5.6   3.1 |  -5.4  22.3  255  45 23   5.2   2.9
 18500  -4.2  24.4  260  47 24   3.9   2.1 |  -4.8  23.4  255  44 22   3.9   2.1
 18000  -3.6  25.5  260  45 23   3.9   2.1 |  -4.3  24.3  255  42 22   3.9   2.1
 17500  -3.0  26.6  260  44 23   3.6   2.0 |  -3.8  25.2  255  41 21   2.7   1.5
 17000  -2.5  27.5  260  43 22   3.6   2.0 |  -3.3  26.1  255  40 21   2.8   1.5
 16500  -2.0  28.4  260  42 22   3.7   2.0 |  -2.9  26.8  255  39 20   3.1   1.7
 16000  -1.4  29.5  260  42 22   3.7   2.0 |  -2.4  27.7  255  38 20   3.4   1.9
 15500  -0.9  30.4  260  42 22   3.8   2.1 |  -1.9  28.6  255  38 19   3.5   1.9
 15000  -0.4  31.3  265  42 22   2.8   1.5 |  -1.4  29.5  260  37 19   4.1   2.3
 14500  -0.0  32.0  265  42 22   2.9   1.6 |  -0.8  30.6  260  36 19   4.1   2.2
 14000   0.4  32.7  265  42 21   2.5   1.4 |  -0.2  31.6  260  35 18   4.4   2.4
 13500   0.7  33.3  270  41 21   2.5   1.4 |   0.5  32.9  260  35 18   4.5   2.5
 13000   1.1  34.0  270  40 20   2.6   1.4 |   1.1  34.0  260  34 18   4.5   2.5
 12500   1.4  34.5  270  38 19   2.7   1.5 |   1.8  35.2  265  34 17   4.5   2.5
 12000   1.8  35.2  275  36 18   3.4   1.9 |   2.4  36.3  265  33 17   4.2   2.3
 11500   2.4  36.3  275  33 17   4.2   2.3 |   3.0  37.4  265  31 16   4.0   2.2
 11000   3.1  37.6  280  30 15   4.9   2.7 |   3.6  38.5  265  30 15   3.2   1.7
 10500   3.9  39.0  280  27 14   5.5   3.0 |   4.0  39.2  265  27 14   2.9   1.6
 10250   4.3  39.7  280  26 13   5.1   2.8 |   4.3  39.7  265  26 13   4.3   2.3
 10000   4.7  40.5  285  24 12   5.1   2.8 |   4.6  40.3  265  24 12   4.2   2.3
  9750   5.1  41.2  285  22 11   5.3   2.9 |   4.9  40.8  265  22 11   3.7   2.0
  9500   5.5  41.9  285  20 10   5.2   2.8 |   5.1  41.2  265  20 10   3.7   2.0
  9250   5.9  42.6  285  19 10   5.4   3.0 |   5.4  41.7  265  18  9   4.2   2.3
  9000   6.2  43.2  285  17  9   4.3   2.3 |   6.2  43.2  260  13  7   5.4   3.0
  8750   6.5  43.7  285  14  7   3.1   1.7 |   6.6  43.9  255  12  6   6.3   3.4
  8500   6.7  44.1  280  12  6   4.0   2.2 |   7.0  44.6  250  10  5   2.9   1.6
  8250   6.9  44.4  275   9  4   0.8   0.5 |   7.0  44.6  245   8  4   2.4   1.3
  8000   7.1  44.8  270   7  3   2.4   1.3 |   7.3  45.1  235   7  4   5.6   3.1
  7750   7.2  45.0  260   5  3   2.4   1.3 |   7.7  45.9  225   6  3   4.8   2.6
  7500   7.3  45.1  245   4  2   0.9   0.5 |   8.0  46.4  215   6  3   5.3   2.9
  7250   7.3  45.1  235   3  2   1.2   0.6 |   8.5  47.3  210   6  3   8.1   4.5
  7000   7.5  45.5  215   3  2   3.0   1.7 |   9.2  48.6  210   5  3  10.1   5.5
  6750   7.7  45.9  200   4  2   2.4   1.3 |   9.9  49.8  205   5  3   9.5   5.2
  6500   7.8  46.0  195   4  2   1.3   0.7 |  10.6  51.1  205   5  3   9.8   5.4
  6250   7.9  46.2  195   4  2   2.8   1.5 |  11.4  52.5  210   5  3   9.2   5.0
  6000   8.3  46.9  190   4  2   6.5   3.6 |  12.1  53.8  210   5  3  12.3   6.8
  5750   8.4  47.1  180   3  2  -7.9  -4.4 |  13.7  56.7  210   5  2  36.4  20.0
  5500     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/06/2022 at 1400 MST          |       11/06/2022 at 1700 MST        
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +12.4        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +11.2
CINH...     0.0    K Index... -22.9        | CINH...    -0.0    K Index... -17.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -69.1 -92.4  245  50 26   0.1   0.1 | -68.5 -91.3  245  52 27   0.8   0.4
 45000 -68.0 -90.4  235  54 28   4.6   2.5 | -66.7 -88.1  235  56 29   3.5   1.9
 40000 -60.6 -77.1  230  54 28   8.0   4.4 | -61.1 -78.0  225  56 29   7.1   3.9
 38000 -55.3 -67.5  230  53 27   8.8   4.9 | -55.9 -68.6  225  51 26   8.7   4.8
 36000 -50.0 -58.0  230  52 27   8.8   4.9 | -50.6 -59.1  225  47 24   8.7   4.8
 34000 -44.6 -48.3  230  51 26   9.1   5.0 | -45.1 -49.2  230  45 23   9.3   5.1
 32000 -39.1 -38.4  230  49 25   9.1   5.0 | -39.6 -39.3  230  45 23   9.3   5.1
 30000 -33.6 -28.5  235  48 24   9.3   5.1 | -34.0 -29.2  230  45 23   9.2   5.1
 29000 -30.8 -23.4  235  47 24   9.3   5.1 | -31.3 -24.3  235  45 23   9.2   5.1
 28000 -28.0 -18.4  235  46 24   9.3   5.1 | -28.5 -19.3  235  45 23   9.2   5.1
 27000 -25.3 -13.5  240  46 23   9.0   4.9 | -25.8 -14.4  235  45 23   8.9   4.9
 26000 -22.6  -8.7  240  45 23   9.0   4.9 | -22.5  -8.5  240  44 23   8.9   4.9
 25000 -19.2  -2.6  240  45 23   9.0   5.0 | -19.8  -3.6  240  44 23   8.9   4.9
 24000 -16.7   1.9  245  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -17.3   0.9  240  44 23   8.1   4.4
 23000 -14.2   6.4  245  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -14.9   5.2  245  44 23   8.1   4.4
 22000 -11.8  10.8  250  45 23   8.3   4.6 | -12.4   9.7  245  44 23   8.2   4.5
 21000  -9.6  14.7  250  44 23   6.6   3.6 | -10.2  13.6  245  43 22   7.1   3.9
 20000  -7.6  18.3  250  43 22   6.6   3.6 |  -8.0  17.6  250  43 22   7.1   3.9
 19500  -6.6  20.1  250  43 22   6.6   3.6 |  -7.0  19.4  250  43 22   7.1   3.9
 19000  -5.6  21.9  250  42 22   5.7   3.1 |  -5.9  21.4  250  42 22   6.0   3.3
 18500  -5.0  23.0  250  42 21   4.3   2.4 |  -5.2  22.6  250  42 21   4.4   2.4
 18000  -4.3  24.3  250  41 21   4.4   2.4 |  -4.6  23.7  250  41 21   4.6   2.5
 17500  -3.7  25.3  250  40 21   3.5   1.9 |  -4.0  24.8  250  40 21   2.7   1.5
 17000  -3.2  26.2  250  39 20   3.5   1.9 |  -3.6  25.5  250  39 20   2.7   1.5
 16500  -2.7  27.1  250  38 20   3.5   1.9 |  -3.2  26.2  250  39 20   2.8   1.5
 16000  -2.2  28.0  250  38 19   3.6   2.0 |  -2.8  27.0  255  37 19   2.9   1.6
 15500  -1.6  29.1  255  37 19   3.7   2.0 |  -2.4  27.7  255  36 18   2.9   1.6
 15000  -1.1  30.0  255  37 19   3.9   2.1 |  -2.0  28.4  255  34 18   2.3   1.3
 14500  -0.6  30.9  260  36 19   4.0   2.2 |  -1.7  28.9  260  32 17   2.6   1.4
 14000  -0.1  31.8  260  36 18   3.0   1.6 |  -1.4  29.5  260  30 16   2.8   1.5
 13500   0.3  32.5  260  35 18   3.0   1.6 |  -1.1  30.0  260  29 15   2.7   1.5
 13000   0.6  33.1  260  34 18   2.4   1.3 |  -0.6  30.9  260  27 14   5.5   3.0
 12500   0.9  33.6  260  32 17   2.1   1.2 |   0.4  32.7  255  24 13   6.4   3.5
 12000   1.3  34.3  260  30 16   3.5   1.9 |   1.3  34.3  255  22 11   7.0   3.9
 11500   2.0  35.6  260  27 14   4.7   2.6 |   2.5  36.5  250  20 10   7.4   4.0
 11000   2.7  36.9  255  25 13   5.8   3.2 |   3.6  38.5  250  18  9   7.9   4.3
 10500   3.7  38.7  255  22 11   6.4   3.5 |   4.8  40.6  240  16  8   8.1   4.5
 10250   4.2  39.6  250  20 10   5.6   3.1 |   5.4  41.7  240  15  8   7.9   4.4
 10000   4.6  40.3  250  19 10   5.8   3.2 |   6.0  42.8  235  14  7   7.5   4.1
  9750   5.0  41.0  250  17  9   6.1   3.4 |   6.6  43.9  230  14  7   7.2   4.0
  9500   5.5  41.9  245  15  8   6.1   3.3 |   7.1  44.8  225  13  7   7.3   4.0
  9250   5.9  42.6  240  13  7   5.9   3.2 |   7.7  45.9  215  12  6   7.9   4.3
  9000   6.4  43.5  235  12  6   6.3   3.4 |   8.7  47.7  205  11  6   6.2   3.4
  8750   6.9  44.4  235  10  5   6.9   3.8 |   9.2  48.6  200  11  6   6.0   3.3
  8500   7.8  46.0  220   8  4   7.6   4.2 |   9.7  49.5  190  11  6   7.8   4.3
  8250   8.5  47.3  215   7  4   9.1   5.0 |  10.3  50.5  185  11  5   8.7   4.8
  8000   9.2  48.6  210   7  3   9.1   5.0 |  10.9  51.6  180  10  5   7.3   4.0
  7750   9.8  49.6  205   6  3   9.5   5.2 |  11.5  52.7  175  10  5   7.7   4.2
  7500  10.5  50.9  200   6  3   8.0   4.4 |  12.0  53.6  170   9  5   7.6   4.1
  7250  11.1  52.0  200   6  3   8.7   4.8 |  12.6  54.7  165   9  5   8.0   4.4
  7000  11.9  53.4  195   5  3  10.6   5.8 |  13.2  55.8  160   8  4   8.5   4.7
  6750  12.6  54.7  195   5  3  10.2   5.6 |  13.9  57.0  155   7  4   8.0   4.4
  6500  13.4  56.1  190   5  3  10.1   5.5 |  14.5  58.1  150   7  3   9.0   4.9
  6250  14.2  57.6  190   5  2  12.3   6.7 |  15.0  59.0  140   6  3   1.7   0.9
  6000  15.3  59.5  190   4  2  17.0   9.3 |  14.5  58.1  130   5  3 -13.4  -7.4
  5750  16.4  61.5  185   4  2   8.3   4.5 |  14.0  57.2  120   4  2  14.5   7.9
  5500     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, at approximately 730 AM and 730 PM local 
time. It is not continuously monitored nor updated after its initial
issuance. 

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken at the Albuquerque International
Sunport site in Albuquerque, New Mexico at

                   North Latitude:  35.03806 deg
                   West Longitude: 106.62194 deg
                   Elevation: 5298.6 feet (1615 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas, especially along and east of 
the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments are welcome and should be directed
to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this page.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive 
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of 
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it 
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above 
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain 
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger 
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of 
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158 
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions. 

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the 
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel's initial temperature is the forecast maximum 
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It 
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures 
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet 
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.  

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.
  
Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights: 
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the 
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor  

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which 
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough 
     movements.

042613

Soaring Forecast for Moriarty NM
National Weather Service Albuquerque NM
1909 MDT Saturday November 5 2022

This forecast is for Sunday, November 6, 2022:

If the trigger temperature of 62.3 F/16.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 365 ft/min (1.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 11295 ft MSL (4960 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 66.0 F/19.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1230 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9822 ft MSL (3487 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 11/07....... Good


Remarks... 

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:30:01 / 17:05:11 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 35 min 10 sec (635 min 10 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:47:36 MST... 38.80 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/06/2022 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 16074 ft MSL (9739 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 23254 ft MSL (16919 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16422 ft MSL (10087 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +11.4
K index......................... -13.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -71.5 -96.7   260   43   22  -1.7  -0.9   71.0 159.8    30.5      M    M
 45000  -71.6 -96.9   250   40   21   8.3   4.6   48.1 118.6    18.3      M    M
 40000  -59.2 -74.6   245   40   21   8.4   4.6   45.0 113.0    17.6      M    M
 38000  -53.5 -64.3   250   42   21   8.5   4.7   43.3 110.0    17.0      M    M
 36000  -48.4 -55.1   250   43   22   8.5   4.7   42.5 108.5    16.8      M    M
 34000  -43.0 -45.4   255   44   23   9.0   4.9   41.7 107.0    16.6      M    M
 32000  -37.6 -35.7   265   45   23   9.0   4.9   41.2 106.1    16.7      M    M
 30000  -32.1 -25.8   270   47   24   9.2   5.0   40.6 105.1    16.7      M    M
 29000  -29.4 -20.9   270   49   25   9.2   5.0   40.4 104.7    16.7      M    M
 28000  -26.6 -15.9   270   50   26   9.3   5.1   40.3 104.6    16.9      M    M
 27000  -24.0 -11.2   275   51   26   8.6   4.7   39.9 103.8    16.7      M    M
 26000  -21.4  -6.5   275   51   26   8.6   4.7   39.4 103.0    16.6      M    M
 25000  -18.8  -1.8   275   51   26   8.6   4.7   39.1 102.4    16.5      M    M
 24000  -16.3   2.7   270   51   26   7.8   4.3   38.6 101.4    16.2      M    M
 23000  -14.0   6.8   270   50   26   7.8   4.3   37.8 100.0    15.8      M    M
 22000  -11.6  11.1   265   50   26   7.8   4.3   37.1  98.9    15.4      M    M
 21000   -8.8  16.2   265   49   25   7.4   4.1   36.2  97.1    14.8      M    M
 20000   -6.6  20.1   265   48   25   7.4   4.1   35.4  95.6    14.2      M    M
 19500   -5.4  22.3   265   47   24   7.4   4.0   35.0  95.0    14.0      M    M
 19000   -4.3  24.3   265   46   24   6.5   3.6   34.6  94.4    13.7      M    M
 18500   -3.5  25.7   265   46   24   5.6   3.1   33.9  93.0    13.2      M    M
 18000   -2.7  27.1   265   45   23   5.7   3.1   33.2  91.7    12.6      M    M
 17500   -1.9  28.6   270   44   23   5.0   2.7   32.4  90.4    12.0      M    M
 17000   -1.1  30.0   270   44   23   5.0   2.7   31.6  89.0    11.3      M    M
 16500   -0.4  31.3   270   44   22   4.4   2.4   30.9  87.6    10.7      M    M
 16000    0.1  32.2   270   44   22   3.7   2.0   29.8  85.7     9.8      M    M
 15500    0.7  33.3   270   44   22   3.7   2.0   28.8  83.9     8.9      M    M
 15000    1.1  34.0   270   44   22   2.7   1.5   27.7  81.9     8.0      M    M
 14500    1.5  34.7   270   44   23   2.8   1.5   26.6  79.9     6.9      M    M
 14000    1.9  35.4   270   44   23   2.5   1.4   25.4  77.8     5.9      M    M
 13500    2.2  36.0   270   43   22   2.6   1.4   24.3  75.7     4.8      M    M
 13000    2.6  36.7   275   43   22   2.8   1.5   23.1  73.6     3.7      M    M
 12500    2.9  37.2   275   43   22   2.9   1.6   22.0  71.6     2.6      M    M
 12000    3.3  37.9   280   42   22   3.2   1.7   20.9  69.7     1.5      M    M
 11500    3.7  38.7   285   42   22   3.4   1.9   19.9  67.8     0.4      M    M
 11000    4.2  39.6   290   42   22   3.2   1.7   18.9  66.0    -0.6    350  1.8
 10500    4.6  40.3   295   41   21   3.3   1.8   17.9  64.1    -1.6    321  1.6
 10250    4.9  40.8   295   41   21   3.0   1.7   17.3  63.2    -2.1    307  1.6
 10000    5.1  41.2   300   41   21   3.3   1.8   16.8  62.3    -2.6    293  1.5
  9750    5.4  41.7   300   40   21   3.8   2.1   16.3  61.4    -3.1    277  1.4
  9500    5.6  42.1   300   39   20   3.6   2.0   15.9  60.6    -3.5    261  1.3
  9250    5.9  42.6   300   38   19   3.9   2.1   15.4  59.7    -4.0    245  1.2
  9000    6.2  43.2   305   36   19   3.7   2.0   15.0  58.9    -4.4    228  1.2
  8750    6.5  43.7   305   34   17   2.8   1.5   14.5  58.0    -4.9    213  1.1
  8500    6.7  44.1   305   31   16   2.6   1.4   13.9  57.0    -5.4    199  1.0
  8250    6.9  44.4   305   29   15   2.6   1.4   13.4  56.1    -5.9    185  0.9
  8000    7.1  44.8   305   26   14   2.5   1.3   12.8  55.1    -6.5    172  0.9
  7750    7.3  45.1   300   23   12   1.7   1.0   12.2  54.0    -7.1    159  0.8
  7500    7.4  45.3   300   21   11   2.1   1.1   11.6  52.9    -7.7    148  0.8
  7250    7.6  45.7   300   19   10  -0.2  -0.1   11.0  51.8    -8.3    137  0.7
  7000    7.4  45.3   295   17    9  -2.7  -1.5   10.1  50.2    -9.2    134  0.7
  6750    7.2  45.0   295   15    7  -3.7  -2.0    9.2  48.5   -10.2    133  0.7
  6500    6.6  43.9   295   12    6 -14.0  -7.7    7.8  46.1   -11.5    143  0.7
  6250      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * * 

           11/06/2022 at 0800 MST          |       11/06/2022 at 1100 MST        
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +11.5        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +12.2
CINH...     0.0    K Index... -34.5        | CINH...     0.0    K Index... -34.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -71.3 -96.3  255  45 23  -1.8  -1.0 | -70.0 -94.0  250  46 24  -1.4  -0.8
 45000 -71.9 -97.4  245  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -69.9 -93.8  240  43 22   6.6   3.6
 40000 -59.1 -74.4  235  47 24   8.2   4.5 | -59.9 -75.8  230  55 28   8.7   4.8
 38000 -54.2 -65.6  240  45 23   8.3   4.5 | -54.5 -66.1  230  52 27   9.1   5.0
 36000 -49.3 -56.7  245  43 22   8.3   4.5 | -49.0 -56.2  235  50 26   9.1   5.0
 34000 -44.0 -47.2  245  43 22   9.1   5.0 | -43.7 -46.7  235  48 25   8.7   4.8
 32000 -38.5 -37.3  245  45 23   9.1   5.0 | -38.5 -37.3  235  47 24   8.7   4.8
 30000 -32.3 -26.1  250  45 23   9.3   5.1 | -32.5 -26.5  235  46 24   9.0   5.0
 29000 -29.5 -21.1  255  46 23   9.3   5.1 | -29.8 -21.6  240  46 24   9.0   5.0
 28000 -26.7 -16.1  260  46 24   9.2   5.0 | -27.1 -16.8  240  46 24   9.0   5.0
 27000 -24.1 -11.4  260  46 24   8.8   4.8 | -24.4 -11.9  245  46 24   8.9   4.9
 26000 -21.4  -6.5  260  46 23   8.8   4.8 | -21.7  -7.1  245  46 24   8.9   4.9
 25000 -18.8  -1.8  260  45 23   8.8   4.8 | -19.1  -2.4  250  46 24   9.0   4.9
 24000 -16.2   2.8  260  46 23   8.5   4.6 | -16.5   2.3  250  46 24   8.5   4.7
 23000 -13.7   7.3  260  46 24   8.5   4.6 | -13.9   7.0  250  47 24   8.5   4.6
 22000 -11.2  11.8  255  47 24   8.5   4.7 | -11.4  11.5  250  47 24   8.5   4.7
 21000  -8.9  16.0  255  46 24   7.2   4.0 |  -9.2  15.4  250  47 24   6.9   3.8
 20000  -6.7  19.9  255  46 24   7.2   4.0 |  -7.1  19.2  255  46 23   6.8   3.8
 19500  -5.6  21.9  255  46 24   7.2   3.9 |  -6.1  21.0  255  45 23   6.8   3.7
 19000  -4.5  23.9  255  45 23   6.8   3.7 |  -5.1  22.8  255  45 23   6.4   3.5
 18500  -3.7  25.3  260  45 23   4.7   2.6 |  -4.3  24.3  255  44 22   4.0   2.2
 18000  -3.0  26.6  260  43 22   4.8   2.6 |  -3.7  25.3  255  43 22   4.1   2.3
 17500  -2.3  27.9  260  42 22   4.3   2.4 |  -2.9  26.8  255  42 21   2.8   1.5
 17000  -1.7  28.9  260  42 21   4.1   2.3 |  -2.5  27.5  255  41 21   2.9   1.6
 16500  -0.8  30.6  260  41 21   4.0   2.2 |  -2.1  28.2  255  41 21   2.9   1.6
 16000  -0.2  31.6  265  41 21   4.0   2.2 |  -1.6  29.1  255  40 21   3.0   1.6
 15500   0.4  32.7  265  41 21   3.8   2.1 |  -1.2  29.8  255  40 20   3.1   1.7
 15000   0.9  33.6  265  41 21   3.5   1.9 |  -0.7  30.7  260  39 20   3.5   1.9
 14500   1.4  34.5  265  42 22   3.6   2.0 |  -0.2  31.6  260  39 20   3.6   1.9
 14000   1.8  35.2  270  42 22   2.2   1.2 |   0.3  32.5  260  38 20   3.1   1.7
 13500   2.2  36.0  270  42 22   2.5   1.4 |   0.7  33.3  265  38 19   3.2   1.7
 13000   2.5  36.5  270  41 21   1.9   1.1 |   1.2  34.2  265  37 19   3.4   1.9
 12500   2.7  36.9  275  40 20   1.9   1.1 |   1.7  35.1  270  35 18   3.4   1.9
 12000   3.0  37.4  275  38 19   1.6   0.9 |   2.1  35.8  270  34 17   3.1   1.7
 11500   3.2  37.8  275  35 18   1.5   0.8 |   2.6  36.7  270  31 16   3.0   1.7
 11000   3.5  38.3  280  32 16   2.9   1.6 |   3.1  37.6  270  28 14   3.0   1.6
 10500   4.0  39.2  280  29 15   3.2   1.8 |   3.4  38.1  270  23 12   2.7   1.5
 10250   4.2  39.6  285  28 14   3.6   2.0 |   3.6  38.5  270  20 10   3.2   1.8
 10000   4.5  40.1  285  27 14   5.1   2.8 |   3.9  39.0  270  18  9   4.4   2.4
  9750   4.9  40.8  285  26 13   5.8   3.2 |   4.2  39.6  265  15  8   4.9   2.7
  9500   5.3  41.5  290  25 13   5.5   3.0 |   4.5  40.1  265  13  7   4.3   2.4
  9250   5.7  42.3  290  24 12   6.2   3.4 |   4.9  40.8  260  11  5   6.4   3.5
  9000   6.2  43.2  290  22 11   5.7   3.1 |   5.5  41.9  260   9  5   8.3   4.5
  8750   6.5  43.7  290  20 11   3.9   2.1 |   6.0  42.8  255   8  4   7.3   4.0
  8500   6.8  44.2  295  19 10   3.9   2.1 |   6.5  43.7  255   7  4   7.1   3.9
  8250   7.0  44.6  295  17  9   3.1   1.7 |   7.1  44.8  250   7  3   8.5   4.6
  8000   7.2  45.0  295  16  8   2.1   1.2 |   7.8  46.0  250   6  3   9.7   5.3
  7750   7.3  45.1  290  14  7   1.8   1.0 |   8.5  47.3  250   5  3   9.2   5.1
  7500   7.4  45.3  290  12  6   1.3   0.7 |   9.2  48.6  245   5  2   9.5   5.2
  7250   7.5  45.5  290  10  5  -0.7  -0.4 |   9.9  49.8  245   4  2  10.0   5.5
  7000   7.3  45.1  290   9  4  -1.8  -1.0 |  10.7  51.3  240   4  2  10.4   5.7
  6750   7.2  45.0  290   7  4  -2.6  -1.4 |  11.4  52.5  235   3  2   9.8   5.4
  6500   6.9  44.4  295   5  2  -3.0  -1.7 |  12.2  54.0  230   3  2  11.5   6.3
  6250     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/06/2022 at 1400 MST          |       11/06/2022 at 1700 MST        
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +11.1        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...      +10.2
CINH...     0.0    K Index... -27.2        | CINH...    -0.0    K Index... -23.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -69.7 -93.5  245  49 25   0.3   0.2 | -68.5 -91.3  245  51 26   1.2   0.7
 45000 -67.9 -90.2  235  51 26   5.0   2.7 | -66.0 -86.8  240  56 29   3.3   1.8
 40000 -60.4 -76.7  225  55 28   7.7   4.2 | -61.1 -78.0  225  54 28   6.4   3.5
 38000 -55.2 -67.4  225  53 27   8.7   4.8 | -55.9 -68.6  225  52 27   8.7   4.8
 36000 -50.0 -58.0  235  51 26   8.7   4.8 | -50.6 -59.1  230  51 26   8.7   4.8
 34000 -44.6 -48.3  235  50 26   9.2   5.0 | -45.2 -49.4  230  48 25   9.2   5.1
 32000 -39.1 -38.4  235  49 25   9.2   5.0 | -39.0 -38.2  235  46 23   9.2   5.1
 30000 -32.9 -27.2  235  48 25   9.2   5.1 | -33.5 -28.3  235  45 23   9.2   5.0
 29000 -30.1 -22.2  235  48 24   9.2   5.1 | -30.8 -23.4  240  44 23   9.2   5.0
 28000 -27.4 -17.3  235  47 24   9.2   5.1 | -28.0 -18.4  240  44 23   9.2   5.0
 27000 -24.7 -12.5  240  46 24   8.9   4.9 | -25.4 -13.7  240  44 23   8.7   4.8
 26000 -22.0  -7.6  240  46 24   8.9   4.9 | -22.8  -9.0  240  44 23   8.7   4.8
 25000 -19.3  -2.7  240  45 23   8.9   4.9 | -20.2  -4.4  240  44 23   8.7   4.8
 24000 -16.8   1.8  245  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -17.7   0.1  245  44 23   7.9   4.3
 23000 -14.4   6.1  245  45 23   8.1   4.5 | -15.3   4.5  245  43 22   7.9   4.3
 22000 -11.9  10.6  250  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -13.0   8.6  245  43 22   7.9   4.3
 21000  -9.8  14.4  250  44 23   6.5   3.6 | -10.8  12.6  245  42 21   6.7   3.7
 20000  -7.8  18.0  250  44 22   6.5   3.6 |  -8.8  16.2  245  40 21   6.7   3.7
 19500  -6.9  19.6  250  43 22   6.5   3.5 |  -7.8  18.0  245  40 21   6.7   3.7
 19000  -5.9  21.4  250  43 22   6.2   3.4 |  -6.8  19.8  245  39 20   6.3   3.5
 18500  -5.2  22.6  250  42 22   3.7   2.0 |  -6.0  21.2  245  39 20   4.4   2.4
 18000  -4.6  23.7  250  41 21   3.8   2.1 |  -5.0  23.0  245  38 19   4.5   2.4
 17500  -3.9  25.0  250  40 21   2.8   1.5 |  -4.4  24.1  245  37 19   4.2   2.3
 17000  -3.4  25.9  250  39 20   2.9   1.6 |  -3.8  25.2  245  35 18   4.2   2.3
 16500  -3.0  26.6  250  38 20   3.1   1.7 |  -3.2  26.2  245  34 18   4.0   2.2
 16000  -2.5  27.5  250  37 19   3.2   1.8 |  -2.6  27.3  250  33 17   3.9   2.2
 15500  -2.1  28.2  255  36 19   3.6   2.0 |  -2.0  28.4  250  31 16   4.0   2.2
 15000  -1.4  29.5  255  35 18   4.8   2.6 |  -1.5  29.3  250  29 15   4.1   2.3
 14500  -0.8  30.6  255  34 17   4.8   2.7 |  -0.9  30.4  255  28 14   4.3   2.3
 14000  -0.1  31.8  260  33 17   4.8   2.7 |  -0.3  31.5  255  26 14   4.1   2.3
 13500   0.6  33.1  260  32 16   5.0   2.8 |   0.3  32.5  260  25 13   4.2   2.3
 13000   1.2  34.2  260  30 16   3.4   1.8 |   0.9  33.6  260  24 12   4.8   2.6
 12500   1.7  35.1  260  28 15   3.3   1.8 |   1.6  34.9  260  22 12   4.6   2.6
 12000   2.2  36.0  260  26 13   3.1   1.7 |   2.3  36.1  260  21 11   6.0   3.3
 11500   2.6  36.7  255  23 12   3.0   1.6 |   3.3  37.9  255  20 10   6.1   3.4
 11000   3.2  37.8  255  20 11   5.6   3.1 |   4.2  39.6  255  18  9   6.9   3.8
 10500   4.1  39.4  255  18  9   5.6   3.1 |   5.3  41.5  245  17  9   6.7   3.7
 10250   4.5  40.1  255  17  9   7.1   3.9 |   5.8  42.4  245  16  8   6.9   3.8
 10000   5.2  41.4  255  16  8   8.9   4.9 |   6.3  43.3  240  14  7   7.4   4.0
  9750   5.8  42.4  255  16  8   8.8   4.9 |   6.9  44.4  235  13  7   7.7   4.2
  9500   6.5  43.7  255  15  8   8.4   4.6 |   7.4  45.3  230  11  6   7.3   4.0
  9250   7.1  44.8  255  15  8  10.1   5.5 |   8.0  46.4  220  10  5   8.6   4.7
  9000   7.9  46.2  255  15  8  10.3   5.7 |   8.7  47.7  215  10  5   9.1   5.0
  8750   8.6  47.5  260  15  7   8.7   4.7 |   9.3  48.7  215   9  5   8.2   4.5
  8500   9.3  48.7  260  14  7   8.7   4.8 |   9.9  49.8  210   9  4   8.1   4.5
  8250   9.9  49.8  260  14  7   9.3   5.1 |  10.5  50.9  210   8  4   9.1   5.0
  8000  10.7  51.3  260  14  7  10.0   5.5 |  11.3  52.3  210   8  4   9.8   5.4
  7750  11.4  52.5  260  14  7   9.7   5.3 |  12.0  53.6  210   7  4   8.9   4.9
  7500  12.1  53.8  260  14  7   9.7   5.3 |  12.6  54.7  210   7  3   8.5   4.7
  7250  12.9  55.2  260  14  7  10.1   5.6 |  13.3  55.9  215   6  3   8.4   4.6
  7000  13.6  56.5  265  14  7  10.7   5.9 |  13.9  57.0  215   5  3   7.4   4.1
  6750  14.4  57.9  265  14  7   9.4   5.2 |  14.4  57.9  220   4  2  10.3   5.7
  6500  15.1  59.2  265  13  7  11.6   6.4 |  15.0  59.0  220   4  2  -2.5  -1.4
  6250     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, at approximately 730 AM and 730 PM local 
time. It is not continuously monitored nor updated after its initial 
issuance. 

The information contained herein is based on numerical weather prediction
model data for the Moriarty Municipal Airport site in Moriarty, New Mexico at

                   North Latitude:  34.9781667 deg
                   West Longitude: 106.0000278 deg
                   Elevation: 6204.2 feet (1891.0 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along and east of the Sandia
and Manzano Mountains. Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments are welcome and should be directed
to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this page.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive 
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of 
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it 
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above 
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain 
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger 
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of 
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158 
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions. 

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the 
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel's initial temperature is the forecast maximum 
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It 
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures 
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet 
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.  

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.
  
Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights: 
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the 
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor  

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which 
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough 
     movements.

042613