National Weather Service United States Department of Commerce

Soaring Forecast for Albuquerque NM
National Weather Service Albuquerque NM
0715 MDT Monday May 23 2022

This forecast is for Monday, May 23, 2022:

If the trigger temperature of 71.1 F/21.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 938 ft/min (4.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17656 ft MSL (12357 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 80.0 F/27.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast opaque high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 12450 ft MSL (7151 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 05/24...... Excellent


Remarks... 

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:57:21 / 20:09:12 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 11 min 52 sec (851 min 52 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:03:17 MDT... 75.63 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 05/23/2022 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13260 ft MSL (7961 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18124 ft MSL (12825 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 18132 ft MSL (12833 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +0.2
K index......................... +12.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.3 -80.1   285   34   18   2.5   1.4   93.9 201.0    38.6      M    M
 45000  -61.4 -78.5   265   37   19   1.6   0.9   69.7 157.5    26.6      M    M
 40000  -60.4 -76.7   285   44   23  -8.5  -4.6   48.6 119.5    14.5      M    M
 38000  -59.7 -75.5   305   46   24   8.5   4.7   40.9 105.6     9.7      M    M
 36000  -54.6 -66.3   295   44   22   8.6   4.7   39.6 103.3     9.1      M    M
 34000  -49.3 -56.7   285   44   23   9.2   5.0   39.0 102.1     8.8      M    M
 32000  -43.8 -46.8   275   42   22   9.0   5.0   38.4 101.0     8.6      M    M
 30000  -38.2 -36.8   280   39   20   7.8   4.3   37.4  99.3     8.1      M    M
 29000  -35.8 -32.4   270   30   15   7.8   4.3   36.7  98.0     7.6      M    M
 28000  -33.5 -28.3   265   31   16   7.8   4.3   35.9  96.7     7.1      M    M
 27000  -31.2 -24.2   255   35   18   7.8   4.3   35.2  95.4     6.7      M    M
 26000  -28.8 -19.8   260   37   19   7.8   4.3   34.4  94.0     6.1      M    M
 25000  -26.5 -15.7   270   40   21   7.8   4.3   33.7  92.7     5.6      M    M
 24000  -24.4 -11.9   265   41   21   6.2   3.4   32.6  90.7     4.7      M    M
 23000  -22.2  -8.0   260   38   20   7.8   4.3   31.7  89.1     4.1      M    M
 22000  -19.8  -3.6   250   37   19   7.8   4.3   31.1  87.9     3.5      M    M
 21000  -17.5   0.5   240   36   19   7.8   4.3   30.5  86.8     3.1      M    M
 20000  -15.2   4.6   255   31   16   7.5   4.1   29.7  85.5     2.4      M    M
 19500  -14.1   6.6   255   29   15   7.4   4.0   29.3  84.7     2.1      M    M
 19000  -13.0   8.6   255   30   15   7.0   3.8   28.9  84.0     1.7      M    M
 18500  -12.2  10.0   255   32   16   4.5   2.5   28.1  82.6     1.0      M    M
 18000  -11.5  11.3   255   33   17   6.5   3.6   27.3  81.2     0.3      M    M
 17500  -10.4  13.3   250   35   18   7.1   3.9   26.8  80.3    -0.0   1132  5.8
 17000   -9.3  15.3   250   36   19   7.1   3.9   26.4  79.5    -0.4   1085  5.5
 16500   -8.2  17.2   250   37   19   7.1   3.9   26.0  78.7    -0.8   1037  5.3
 16000   -7.1  19.2   250   39   20   8.2   4.5   25.6  78.1    -1.1    988  5.0
 15500   -5.3  22.5   250   38   20   8.3   4.6   25.2  77.4    -1.6    914  4.6
 15000   -4.1  24.6   255   37   19   8.2   4.5   25.0  77.0    -1.8    863  4.4
 14500   -2.9  26.8   255   35   18   8.2   4.5   24.7  76.5    -2.0    811  4.1
 14000   -1.6  29.1   260   34   18   8.2   4.5   24.5  76.1    -2.3    759  3.9
 13500   -0.4  31.3   265   33   17   8.2   4.5   24.2  75.6    -2.5    707  3.6
 13000    0.9  33.6   265   31   16   8.2   4.5   24.0  75.1    -2.8    655  3.3
 12500    2.1  35.8   270   30   15   8.2   4.5   23.7  74.7    -3.0    604  3.1
 12000    3.3  37.9   275   29   15   8.1   4.5   23.5  74.3    -3.2    552  2.8
 11500    4.6  40.3   275   27   14   9.0   4.9   23.3  73.9    -3.5    499  2.5
 11000    5.9  42.6   270   25   13   9.1   5.0   23.1  73.6    -3.7    446  2.3
 10500    7.2  45.0   265   22   11   9.3   5.1   23.0  73.4    -3.9    393  2.0
 10250    7.8  46.0   265   21   11   8.5   4.7   23.0  73.4    -4.0    366  1.9
 10000    8.4  47.1   260   22   11   7.9   4.3   22.8  73.1    -4.1    342  1.7
  9750    8.9  48.0   265   22   11   7.7   4.2   22.7  72.9    -4.3    317  1.6
  9500    9.4  48.9   265   23   12   6.4   3.5   22.5  72.5    -4.5    295  1.5
  9250    9.9  49.8   270   23   12   6.0   3.3   22.2  72.0    -4.8    273  1.4
  9000   10.4  50.7   275   24   12   6.1   3.3   21.9  71.5    -5.1    252  1.3
  8750   10.8  51.4   275   24   12   6.1   3.3   21.6  71.0    -5.4    230  1.2
  8500   11.3  52.3   270   23   12   6.1   3.3   21.4  70.4    -5.6    209  1.1
  8250   11.8  53.2   265   23   12   6.1   3.3   21.1  69.9    -5.9    188  1.0
  8000   12.2  54.0   260   23   12   6.1   3.3   20.8  69.4    -6.2    166  0.8
  7750   12.7  54.9   260   22   11   6.1   3.3   20.5  68.9    -6.5    145  0.7
  7500   13.2  55.8   250   20   10   6.1   3.3   20.2  68.4    -6.7    123  0.6
  7250   13.6  56.5   240   18    9   6.1   3.4   19.9  67.9    -7.0    102  0.5
  7000   14.1  57.4   230   16    8   6.9   3.8   19.7  67.5    -7.3     80  0.4
  6750   14.6  58.3   225   16    8   8.0   4.4   19.5  67.1    -7.5     58  0.3
  6500   15.1  59.2   220   15    8   6.3   3.5   19.4  66.9    -7.8     36  0.2
  6250   15.2  59.4   210   16    8  -2.0  -1.1   18.8  65.9    -8.4     25  0.1
  6000   14.8  58.6   200   16    8  -2.8  -1.5   17.8  64.0    -9.6     31  0.2
  5750   14.7  58.5   200   13    7   0.1   0.0   17.0  62.7   -10.4     25  0.1
  5500   14.4  57.9   215    7    4  -9.1  -5.0   16.0  60.8   -11.5     27  0.1

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * * 

           05/23/2022 at 0900 MDT          |       05/23/2022 at 1200 MDT        
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +2.7        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +2.3
CINH...    -0.1    K Index...  +5.1        | CINH...    -0.1    K Index... +10.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.8 -77.4  285  32 16   1.0   0.5 | -60.4 -76.7  295  29 15   1.8   1.0
 45000 -59.5 -75.1  295  34 17  -0.1  -0.0 | -57.9 -72.2  295  37 19  -0.7  -0.4
 40000 -59.6 -75.3  290  43 22  -0.6  -0.3 | -59.0 -74.2  285  44 23  -1.0  -0.6
 38000 -56.6 -69.9  280  42 22   6.0   3.3 | -56.2 -69.2  275  44 22   5.9   3.2
 36000 -53.0 -63.4  270  41 21   6.0   3.3 | -52.7 -62.9  265  43 22   5.9   3.2
 34000 -48.7 -55.7  270  41 21   8.6   4.7 | -48.5 -55.3  265  43 22   8.2   4.5
 32000 -43.5 -46.3  275  40 21   8.6   4.7 | -43.6 -46.5  265  41 21   8.2   4.5
 30000 -38.5 -37.3  275  38 20   8.0   4.4 | -38.6 -37.5  265  40 21   8.6   4.7
 29000 -36.1 -33.0  270  37 19   8.0   4.4 | -36.0 -32.8  265  41 21   8.6   4.7
 28000 -33.7 -28.7  270  36 19   8.0   4.4 | -32.8 -27.0  265  41 21   8.6   4.7
 27000 -30.8 -23.4  265  36 19   7.9   4.4 | -30.4 -22.7  265  41 21   7.6   4.2
 26000 -28.4 -19.1  265  38 19   7.9   4.4 | -28.1 -18.6  265  42 22   7.6   4.2
 25000 -26.0 -14.8  265  39 20   7.9   4.3 | -25.9 -14.6  260  43 22   7.6   4.2
 24000 -23.9 -11.0  260  40 20   6.5   3.6 | -23.7 -10.7  260  43 22   6.4   3.5
 23000 -21.9  -7.4  260  40 20   6.5   3.6 | -21.8  -7.2  260  41 21   6.5   3.6
 22000 -20.0  -4.0  260  40 20   6.6   3.6 | -19.9  -3.8  260  40 20   6.5   3.6
 21000 -17.9  -0.2  260  39 20   7.1   3.9 | -18.1  -0.6  255  38 20   5.9   3.2
 20000 -15.8   3.6  255  37 19   7.1   3.9 | -16.3   2.7  255  37 19   5.8   3.2
 19500 -14.7   5.5  255  36 19   7.1   3.9 | -15.4   4.3  255  36 19   5.9   3.2
 19000 -13.7   7.3  255  35 18   7.5   4.1 | -14.5   5.9  250  36 18   6.3   3.4
 18500 -12.4   9.7  255  35 18   8.6   4.7 | -13.4   7.9  250  35 18   8.7   4.8
 18000 -11.1  12.0  255  34 18   8.6   4.7 | -12.1  10.2  255  35 18   8.7   4.8
 17500  -9.9  14.2  255  34 18   7.1   3.9 | -10.8  12.6  255  34 17   7.1   3.9
 17000  -8.9  16.0  250  34 17   7.0   3.8 |  -9.8  14.4  255  32 17   6.7   3.7
 16500  -7.8  18.0  250  34 17   6.8   3.7 |  -8.8  16.2  255  31 16   6.3   3.5
 16000  -6.8  19.8  250  33 17   6.6   3.6 |  -8.0  17.6  255  28 15   5.4   3.0
 15500  -5.8  21.6  250  32 16   6.6   3.6 |  -7.2  19.0  255  26 13   5.4   2.9
 15000  -4.8  23.4  255  30 16   6.7   3.7 |  -6.2  20.8  255  24 12   8.1   4.5
 14500  -3.8  25.2  255  29 15   6.6   3.6 |  -5.0  23.0  255  22 11   7.8   4.3
 14000  -2.8  27.0  255  28 14   7.5   4.1 |  -3.8  25.2  255  21 11   9.2   5.0
 13500  -1.7  28.9  260  26 13   7.4   4.1 |  -2.4  27.7  255  20 11   9.2   5.1
 13000  -0.6  30.9  260  25 13   8.0   4.4 |  -1.0  30.2  255  20 10   9.4   5.1
 12500   0.6  33.1  265  24 12   8.1   4.4 |   0.4  32.7  255  20 10   9.4   5.2
 12000   1.8  35.2  265  23 12   8.4   4.6 |   1.8  35.2  255  19 10   9.4   5.2
 11500   3.1  37.6  265  22 11   8.5   4.6 |   3.2  37.8  255  19 10   9.4   5.2
 11000   4.3  39.7  265  21 11   8.3   4.6 |   4.6  40.3  255  19 10   9.6   5.3
 10500   5.5  41.9  265  21 11   8.5   4.7 |   6.1  43.0  255  18  9   9.6   5.3
 10250   6.1  43.0  265  21 11   8.8   4.8 |   6.8  44.2  255  18  9   9.4   5.2
 10000   6.7  44.1  265  20 10   7.9   4.3 |   8.3  46.9  250  18  9   9.9   5.4
  9750   7.3  45.1  265  20 10   7.3   4.0 |   9.0  48.2  250  17  9   9.8   5.4
  9500   7.8  46.0  265  20 10   7.6   4.2 |   9.7  49.5  250  17  9   9.5   5.2
  9250   8.4  47.1  265  19 10   6.3   3.4 |  10.4  50.7  250  17  9   9.5   5.2
  9000   9.1  48.4  260  17  9   4.9   2.7 |  11.2  52.2  250  17  9   9.7   5.3
  8750   9.5  49.1  255  16  8   5.5   3.0 |  11.9  53.4  250  16  8   9.5   5.2
  8500   9.9  49.8  250  15  8   3.1   1.7 |  12.6  54.7  250  16  8  10.1   5.5
  8250  10.1  50.2  250  15  7   3.2   1.8 |  13.4  56.1  250  16  8  10.4   5.7
  8000  10.4  50.7  245  13  7   5.6   3.1 |  14.1  57.4  250  15  8  10.0   5.5
  7750  10.8  51.4  235  12  6   5.0   2.7 |  14.9  58.8  250  15  8  10.3   5.6
  7500  11.1  52.0  230  11  6   4.8   2.6 |  15.7  60.3  250  15  8   9.5   5.2
  7250  11.5  52.7  220  11  6   7.4   4.0 |  16.3  61.3  250  14  7   9.8   5.4
  7000  12.2  54.0  220  11  5   9.6   5.3 |  17.1  62.8  250  14  7  10.7   5.9
  6750  12.9  55.2  215  10  5   9.1   5.0 |  17.9  64.2  250  14  7  10.6   5.8
  6500  13.6  56.5  215  10  5   9.6   5.2 |  18.7  65.7  250  13  7  10.5   5.8
  6250  14.3  57.7  210  10  5   9.2   5.0 |  19.6  67.3  250  13  7  16.3   8.9
  6000  15.0  59.0  210  10  5  12.7   7.0 |  21.3  70.3  250  12  6  26.7  14.6
  5750  16.6  61.9  210   9  4  36.5  20.0 |  22.9  73.2  250  11  6   7.9   4.3
  5500     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           05/23/2022 at 1500 MDT          |       05/23/2022 at 1800 MDT        
                                           |
CAPE...    +6.1    LI...       +0.1        | CAPE...   +35.0    LI...       +0.5
CINH...    -2.0    K Index... +17.0        | CINH...   -92.1    K Index... +20.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.7 -75.5  290  34 17   2.6   1.4 | -59.0 -74.2  285  23 12   3.1   1.7
 45000 -56.2 -69.2  285  40 21  -0.4  -0.2 | -54.7 -66.5  280  29 15   0.7   0.4
 40000 -56.9 -70.4  275  48 25  -0.6  -0.3 | -53.8 -64.8  275  41 21   0.7   0.4
 38000 -55.2 -67.4  270  48 25   3.8   2.1 | -53.3 -63.9  275  41 21   0.8   0.4
 36000 -52.9 -63.2  270  48 25   3.8   2.1 | -52.8 -63.0  270  38 20   0.8   0.4
 34000 -49.6 -57.3  270  48 25   7.9   4.3 | -50.6 -59.1  270  35 18   7.3   4.0
 32000 -44.9 -48.8  265  47 24   7.9   4.3 | -46.3 -51.3  265  32 17   7.3   4.0
 30000 -40.1 -40.2  260  46 24   8.3   4.6 | -41.5 -42.7  260  32 16   9.0   4.9
 29000 -37.6 -35.7  260  45 23   8.3   4.6 | -38.8 -37.8  255  33 17   9.0   4.9
 28000 -34.5 -30.1  260  44 22   8.4   4.6 | -36.1 -33.0  250  35 18   9.0   4.9
 27000 -31.9 -25.4  260  44 23   9.0   4.9 | -33.4 -28.1  250  37 19   9.4   5.1
 26000 -29.2 -20.6  260  45 23   9.1   5.0 | -30.6 -23.1  245  38 20   9.3   5.1
 25000 -26.5 -15.7  260  47 24   9.0   5.0 | -27.9 -18.2  240  40 21   9.4   5.1
 24000 -24.1 -11.4  260  47 24   5.9   3.2 | -25.2 -13.4  240  41 21   7.9   4.3
 23000 -22.3  -8.1  255  46 24   6.1   3.3 | -22.9  -9.2  240  40 21   7.8   4.3
 22000 -20.5  -4.9  250  45 23   6.1   3.3 | -20.0  -4.0  240  39 20   7.8   4.3
 21000 -18.8  -1.8  250  42 22   6.0   3.3 | -17.8  -0.0  240  38 19   7.4   4.1
 20000 -17.0   1.4  245  35 18   6.0   3.3 | -15.6   3.9  240  37 19   7.4   4.1
 19500 -16.1   3.0  245  32 16   6.0   3.3 | -14.5   5.9  245  37 19   7.4   4.1
 19000 -15.2   4.6  245  29 15   6.3   3.5 | -13.4   7.9  245  37 19   7.4   4.0
 18500 -14.1   6.6  245  27 14   8.6   4.7 | -12.3   9.9  245  37 19   7.2   4.0
 18000 -12.8   9.0  245  26 13   8.4   4.6 | -11.3  11.7  240  37 19   7.2   4.0
 17500 -11.6  11.1  245  26 13   8.4   4.6 | -10.2  13.6  240  37 19   7.1   3.9
 17000 -10.3  13.5  245  26 13   8.5   4.6 |  -9.2  15.4  240  36 19   7.1   3.9
 16500  -9.1  15.6  245  26 13   8.7   4.8 |  -8.1  17.4  240  36 18   7.6   4.2
 16000  -7.7  18.1  245  26 13   9.5   5.2 |  -6.9  19.6  240  35 18   8.7   4.8
 15500  -6.2  20.8  245  26 13   9.4   5.2 |  -5.6  21.9  240  33 17   8.7   4.8
 15000  -4.8  23.4  245  26 13   9.7   5.3 |  -4.2  24.4  240  32 16   9.6   5.3
 14500  -3.3  26.1  245  26 13   9.7   5.3 |  -2.8  27.0  240  30 15   9.6   5.2
 14000  -1.9  28.6  245  26 13   9.7   5.3 |  -1.4  29.5  240  28 14   9.2   5.1
 13500  -0.4  31.3  245  25 13   9.8   5.3 |  -0.0  32.0  245  25 13   9.2   5.0
 13000   1.1  34.0  245  25 13   9.8   5.4 |   1.3  34.3  245  23 12   8.8   4.8
 12500   2.5  36.5  245  25 13   9.9   5.4 |   2.6  36.7  250  21 11   8.6   4.7
 12000   4.0  39.2  245  24 13   9.8   5.4 |   3.9  39.0  250  19 10   8.5   4.7
 11500   5.5  41.9  245  24 12   9.8   5.4 |   5.1  41.2  260  17  9   8.4   4.6
 11000   7.0  44.6  250  23 12   9.9   5.4 |   6.3  43.3  265  15  8   8.1   4.4
 10500   8.5  47.3  250  23 12   9.7   5.3 |   7.5  45.5  275  14  7   8.3   4.6
 10250   9.2  48.6  250  22 11   9.4   5.1 |   8.1  46.6  280  14  7   8.9   4.9
 10000  10.7  51.3  250  22 11  10.5   5.8 |   8.8  47.8  285  13  7   8.5   4.6
  9750  11.4  52.5  250  21 11  10.1   5.5 |   9.4  48.9  290  13  7   8.0   4.4
  9500  12.2  54.0  250  21 11   9.2   5.0 |  10.0  50.0  295  13  7   8.2   4.5
  9250  12.9  55.2  255  20 11   9.3   5.1 |  10.6  51.1  300  13  7   8.9   4.9
  9000  13.6  56.5  255  20 10   9.8   5.4 |  11.2  52.2  305  14  7   8.4   4.6
  8750  14.3  57.7  255  20 10   9.5   5.2 |  11.8  53.2  310  14  7   7.9   4.3
  8500  15.0  59.0  255  19 10  10.4   5.7 |  12.4  54.3  310  14  7   7.6   4.2
  8250  15.8  60.4  255  19 10  10.6   5.8 |  13.0  55.4  315  15  8   9.2   5.0
  8000  16.6  61.9  255  18  9   9.9   5.5 |  13.7  56.7  320  16  8  10.0   5.5
  7750  17.4  63.3  260  18  9  10.2   5.6 |  15.1  59.2  325  17  9   9.4   5.1
  7500  18.1  64.6  260  18  9  10.0   5.5 |  15.8  60.4  325  17  9   8.4   4.6
  7250  18.9  66.0  260  17  9  10.0   5.5 |  16.4  61.5  330  18  9   8.8   4.8
  7000  19.6  67.3  260  17  9  10.2   5.6 |  17.1  62.8  330  18  9   9.9   5.4
  6750  20.4  68.7  260  16  8   9.9   5.5 |  17.8  64.0  330  19 10   9.6   5.3
  6500  21.1  70.0  265  16  8  10.8   5.9 |  18.5  65.3  330  19 10   9.7   5.3
  6250  22.1  71.8  265  15  8  17.2   9.4 |  19.3  66.7  335  19 10  11.7   6.4
  6000  23.7  74.7  265  14  7  24.9  13.7 |  20.3  68.5  335  17  9  15.0   8.2
  5750  25.3  77.5  270  13  6  12.0   6.6 |  21.3  70.3  335  16  8   9.2   5.0
  5500     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, at approximately 730 AM and 730 PM local 
time. It is not continuously monitored nor updated after its initial
issuance. 

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken at the Albuquerque International
Sunport site in Albuquerque, New Mexico at

                   North Latitude:  35.03806 deg
                   West Longitude: 106.62194 deg
                   Elevation: 5298.6 feet (1615 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas, especially along and east of 
the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments are welcome and should be directed
to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this page.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive 
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of 
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it 
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above 
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain 
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger 
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of 
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158 
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions. 

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the 
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel's initial temperature is the forecast maximum 
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It 
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures 
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet 
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.  

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.
  
Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights: 
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the 
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor  

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which 
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough 
     movements.

042613

Soaring Forecast for Moriarty NM
National Weather Service Albuquerque NM
0712 MDT Monday May 23 2022

This forecast is for Monday, May 23, 2022:

If the trigger temperature of 65.8 F/18.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 866 ft/min (4.4 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17987 ft MSL (11659 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 76.0 F/24.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 0930 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast opaque high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 14645 ft MSL (8316 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 05/24...... Good


Remarks... 

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:55:00 / 20:06:35 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 11 min 34 sec (851 min 34 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:00:47 MDT... 75.71 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 05/23/2022 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13196 ft MSL (6868 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 21040 ft MSL (14712 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 20328 ft MSL (14000 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +1.2
K index......................... +3.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.8 -79.2   275   39   20   0.2   0.1   88.9 192.1    37.7      M    M
 45000  -61.4 -78.5   275   41   21   0.7   0.4   65.9 150.6    25.9      M    M
 40000  -60.3 -76.5   290   44   22   0.5   0.3   45.2 113.4    13.9      M    M
 38000  -57.3 -71.1   290   43   22   6.2   3.4   40.9 105.5    11.3      M    M
 36000  -53.6 -64.5   295   42   22   6.2   3.4   37.9 100.1     9.5      M    M
 34000  -49.3 -56.7   290   41   21   8.2   4.5   35.7  96.3     8.2      M    M
 32000  -44.4 -47.9   285   40   21   8.2   4.5   34.5  94.0     7.4      M    M
 30000  -38.9 -38.0   275   38   19   8.3   4.6   33.2  91.7     6.6      M    M
 29000  -36.4 -33.5   270   36   19   8.3   4.6   32.6  90.7     6.2      M    M
 28000  -33.9 -29.0   265   35   18   8.3   4.6   32.1  89.8     5.9      M    M
 27000  -31.6 -24.9   260   35   18   7.4   4.1   31.4  88.5     5.4      M    M
 26000  -29.4 -20.9   265   36   19   7.4   4.1   30.5  86.8     4.7      M    M
 25000  -27.2 -17.0   265   37   19   7.4   4.1   29.7  85.4     4.1      M    M
 24000  -24.9 -12.8   260   38   19   8.2   4.5   28.9  84.1     3.5      M    M
 23000  -22.5  -8.5   255   37   19   8.2   4.5   28.3  82.9     3.0      M    M
 22000  -20.0  -4.0   250   36   19   8.1   4.5   27.8  82.0     2.6      M    M
 21000  -17.6   0.3   250   36   19   7.9   4.3   27.2  80.9     2.2      M    M
 20000  -15.3   4.5   250   37   19   7.9   4.3   26.5  79.7     1.6      M    M
 19500  -14.1   6.6   250   37   19   7.9   4.3   26.2  79.1     1.3      M    M
 19000  -12.9   8.8   250   37   19   7.8   4.3   25.9  78.6     1.1      M    M
 18500  -11.9  10.6   250   37   19   6.0   3.3   25.4  77.7     0.7      M    M
 18000  -11.0  12.2   250   37   19   6.1   3.4   24.8  76.6     0.1      M    M
 17500   -9.6  14.7   255   38   19   6.0   3.3   23.9  74.9    -0.7   1015  5.2
 17000   -8.8  16.2   255   38   20   6.0   3.3   23.2  73.8    -1.3    974  4.9
 16500   -7.8  18.0   255   39   20   7.1   3.9   22.7  72.8    -1.9    932  4.7
 16000   -6.8  19.8   255   39   20   7.4   4.1   22.3  72.1    -2.3    885  4.5
 15500   -5.7  21.7   255   38   20   7.7   4.2   21.9  71.4    -2.6    837  4.3
 15000   -4.4  24.1   255   36   19   8.2   4.5   21.6  70.9    -2.9    786  4.0
 14500   -3.2  26.2   255   34   18   8.2   4.5   21.4  70.5    -3.1    733  3.7
 14000   -1.9  28.6   255   32   16   8.3   4.6   21.1  70.0    -3.3    681  3.5
 13500   -0.7  30.7   255   30   15   8.4   4.6   20.9  69.6    -3.5    628  3.2
 13000    0.6  33.1   255   28   14   7.7   4.3   20.6  69.1    -3.8    576  2.9
 12500    1.7  35.1   255   27   14   7.8   4.3   20.3  68.6    -4.1    527  2.7
 12000    2.9  37.2   255   25   13   8.0   4.4   20.0  68.1    -4.4    477  2.4
 11500    4.1  39.4   255   25   13   7.9   4.3   19.8  67.6    -4.7    427  2.2
 11000    5.2  41.4   255   25   13   7.8   4.3   19.4  67.0    -5.0    378  1.9
 10500    6.4  43.5   255   25   13   8.0   4.4   19.2  66.5    -5.3    328  1.7
 10250    7.0  44.6   255   24   13   7.5   4.1   19.0  66.2    -5.5    303  1.5
 10000    7.5  45.5   255   25   13   7.3   4.0   18.8  65.9    -5.7    279  1.4
  9750    8.1  46.6   255   25   13   7.8   4.3   18.7  65.6    -5.9    255  1.3
  9500    8.7  47.7   255   25   13   7.4   4.1   18.5  65.3    -6.1    230  1.2
  9250    9.2  48.6   255   25   13   8.4   4.6   18.3  65.0    -6.2    206  1.0
  9000    9.9  49.8   255   25   13   7.6   4.2   18.3  64.9    -6.3    179  0.9
  8750   10.3  50.5   255   25   13   5.8   3.2   18.0  64.4    -6.6    158  0.8
  8500   10.8  51.4   255   25   13   5.9   3.2   17.7  63.8    -6.9    137  0.7
  8250   11.2  52.2   255   25   13   7.1   3.9   17.4  63.4    -7.2    116  0.6
  8000   11.8  53.2   255   24   13   7.9   4.3   17.3  63.1    -7.4     92  0.5
  7750   12.4  54.3   250   23   12   7.8   4.3   17.1  62.8    -7.6     68  0.3
  7500   12.9  55.2   250   22   12   5.9   3.2   16.9  62.5    -7.8     45  0.2
  7250   13.0  55.4   250   21   11  -0.2  -0.1   16.4  61.6    -8.4     33  0.2
  7000   12.8  55.0   245   18    9  -2.8  -1.6   15.5  59.9    -9.4     33  0.2
  6750   12.5  54.5   245   15    8  -3.2  -1.8   14.6  58.2   -10.5     35  0.2
  6500   11.7  53.1   240   10    5 -16.2  -8.9   13.3  55.9   -12.0     50  0.3
  6250      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * * 

           05/23/2022 at 0900 MDT          |       05/23/2022 at 1200 MDT        
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +3.4        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +3.2
CINH...    -0.9    K Index...  +4.0        | CINH...    -0.1    K Index...  +4.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.9 -77.6  280  32 17   0.4   0.2 | -60.6 -77.1  285  30 15   1.9   1.0
 45000 -60.4 -76.7  280  33 17  -0.1  -0.0 | -58.2 -72.8  285  34 18  -0.9  -0.5
 40000 -60.5 -76.9  280  44 23  -0.4  -0.2 | -59.6 -75.3  285  43 22  -1.1  -0.6
 38000 -57.4 -71.3  280  43 22   6.6   3.6 | -56.8 -70.2  275  43 22   6.1   3.3
 36000 -53.5 -64.3  275  40 21   6.6   3.6 | -53.2 -63.8  270  42 22   6.1   3.3
 34000 -49.0 -56.2  270  39 20   8.6   4.7 | -48.9 -56.0  265  41 21   8.5   4.7
 32000 -43.2 -45.8  275  38 20   8.6   4.7 | -43.2 -45.8  265  39 20   8.5   4.7
 30000 -38.3 -36.9  270  36 19   7.9   4.3 | -38.1 -36.6  265  38 19   8.3   4.6
 29000 -36.0 -32.8  265  36 18   7.9   4.4 | -35.7 -32.3  260  38 20   8.4   4.6
 28000 -33.6 -28.5  260  35 18   7.9   4.4 | -33.2 -27.8  260  38 20   8.3   4.6
 27000 -31.3 -24.3  255  36 18   7.9   4.3 | -30.8 -23.4  260  39 20   7.4   4.1
 26000 -28.9 -20.0  260  36 19   7.9   4.4 | -28.6 -19.5  260  39 20   7.4   4.1
 25000 -26.5 -15.7  260  37 19   7.9   4.4 | -26.4 -15.5  260  40 20   7.4   4.1
 24000 -24.3 -11.7  260  38 19   6.4   3.5 | -24.3 -11.7  260  39 20   6.2   3.4
 23000 -22.4  -8.3  260  37 19   6.5   3.6 | -22.5  -8.5  255  38 20   6.3   3.5
 22000 -20.5  -4.9  255  36 19   6.6   3.6 | -20.6  -5.1  255  37 19   6.3   3.5
 21000 -18.3  -0.9  255  36 18   8.6   4.7 | -18.5  -1.3  250  36 19   8.1   4.4
 20000 -15.7   3.7  250  35 18   8.6   4.7 | -16.1   3.0  250  36 18   8.0   4.4
 19500 -14.4   6.1  250  35 18   8.6   4.7 | -14.9   5.2  250  35 18   8.0   4.4
 19000 -13.1   8.4  250  35 18   8.6   4.7 | -13.7   7.3  250  35 18   8.0   4.4
 18500 -11.8  10.8  250  35 18   7.9   4.3 | -11.8  10.8  250  35 18   8.1   4.5
 18000 -10.0  14.0  255  34 18   7.9   4.4 | -10.6  12.9  250  34 18   8.2   4.5
 17500  -9.0  15.8  255  34 18   6.3   3.4 |  -9.5  14.9  250  34 18   7.0   3.8
 17000  -8.0  17.6  255  34 18   6.4   3.5 |  -8.4  16.9  250  34 17   7.1   3.9
 16500  -7.0  19.4  255  34 17   6.0   3.3 |  -7.4  18.7  255  33 17   6.5   3.5
 16000  -6.2  20.8  255  33 17   5.9   3.3 |  -6.4  20.5  255  32 16   6.2   3.4
 15500  -5.3  22.5  255  33 17   6.2   3.4 |  -5.5  22.1  255  30 16   5.6   3.1
 15000  -4.3  24.3  260  32 16   6.8   3.7 |  -4.9  23.2  255  28 14   4.2   2.3
 14500  -3.3  26.1  260  31 16   6.8   3.8 |  -4.3  24.3  255  25 13   4.3   2.4
 14000  -2.2  28.0  260  29 15   7.5   4.1 |  -3.2  26.2  255  23 12   9.6   5.3
 13500  -1.1  30.0  265  28 14   7.5   4.1 |  -1.9  28.6  255  22 11   9.2   5.0
 13000  -0.0  32.0  265  26 13   7.5   4.1 |  -0.5  31.1  255  22 11   9.3   5.1
 12500   1.1  34.0  265  24 13   7.5   4.1 |   0.9  33.6  255  21 11   9.3   5.1
 12000   2.2  36.0  270  23 12   8.2   4.5 |   2.3  36.1  250  21 11   9.6   5.3
 11500   3.3  37.9  270  22 11   8.4   4.6 |   3.7  38.7  250  21 11   9.6   5.3
 11000   4.6  40.3  270  21 11   8.4   4.6 |   5.1  41.2  250  21 11   9.2   5.1
 10500   5.8  42.4  270  21 11   8.7   4.8 |   6.5  43.7  250  21 11   9.1   5.0
 10250   6.4  43.5  270  21 11   6.3   3.5 |   7.2  45.0  250  21 11   9.9   5.4
 10000   6.7  44.1  265  20 10   5.3   2.9 |   8.0  46.4  250  21 11  10.0   5.5
  9750   7.2  45.0  265  20 10   7.1   3.9 |   8.7  47.7  250  21 11   9.5   5.2
  9500   7.7  45.9  260  19 10   6.2   3.4 |   9.4  48.9  250  21 11   9.1   5.0
  9250   8.2  46.8  255  19 10   8.0   4.4 |  10.1  50.2  250  21 11  11.3   6.2
  9000   8.8  47.8  255  18  9   8.5   4.7 |  11.0  51.8  250  21 11  11.0   6.0
  8750   9.4  48.9  250  18  9   7.2   4.0 |  11.7  53.1  250  21 11   8.6   4.7
  8500  10.0  50.0  250  18  9   7.3   4.0 |  12.4  54.3  250  21 11   9.0   4.9
  8250  10.5  50.9  250  17  9   8.9   4.9 |  13.0  55.4  250  21 11   9.8   5.4
  8000  11.3  52.3  245  17  9  10.1   5.5 |  13.8  56.8  255  21 11  10.6   5.8
  7750  12.0  53.6  245  17  9   8.9   4.9 |  14.6  58.3  255  20 11   9.9   5.4
  7500  12.6  54.7  245  17  9   9.1   5.0 |  15.3  59.5  255  20 10  10.0   5.5
  7250  13.3  55.9  245  16  8  10.1   5.6 |  16.1  61.0  255  20 10  10.8   5.9
  7000  14.1  57.4  245  16  8  10.8   5.9 |  16.9  62.4  255  20 10  11.8   6.5
  6750  14.9  58.8  240  15  8   9.5   5.2 |  17.8  64.0  255  19 10   9.9   5.4
  6500  15.6  60.1  240  15  8  11.4   6.2 |  18.6  65.5  255  19 10  15.4   8.4
  6250     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           05/23/2022 at 1500 MDT          |       05/23/2022 at 1800 MDT        
                                           |
CAPE...    +8.5    LI...        0.0        | CAPE...    +5.4    LI...       +0.1
CINH...    -1.1    K Index... +16.3        | CINH...   -28.5    K Index... +22.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.1 -76.2  295  31 16   2.9   1.6 | -59.6 -75.3  280  22 11   3.3   1.8
 45000 -56.2 -69.2  285  39 20  -1.1  -0.6 | -55.1 -67.2  270  30 16   0.5   0.3
 40000 -58.0 -72.4  265  47 24  -1.1  -0.6 | -54.5 -66.1  270  35 18   0.5   0.3
 38000 -56.1 -69.0  260  45 23   4.5   2.5 | -54.0 -65.2  270  36 18   1.0   0.6
 36000 -53.4 -64.1  255  42 21   4.5   2.5 | -53.3 -63.9  265  36 19   1.0   0.6
 34000 -49.8 -57.6  255  41 21   8.4   4.6 | -50.8 -59.4  260  37 19   7.9   4.3
 32000 -44.2 -47.6  255  45 23   8.4   4.6 | -46.0 -50.8  255  38 20   7.9   4.3
 30000 -39.1 -38.4  255  44 23   8.6   4.7 | -40.8 -41.4  250  40 20   9.8   5.4
 29000 -36.5 -33.7  255  41 21   8.6   4.7 | -37.8 -36.0  245  41 21   9.8   5.4
 28000 -34.0 -29.2  255  39 20   8.7   4.8 | -34.9 -30.8  240  42 22   9.8   5.4
 27000 -31.4 -24.5  255  39 20   8.8   4.8 | -32.1 -25.8  240  42 22   8.7   4.8
 26000 -28.8 -19.8  260  41 21   8.8   4.9 | -29.5 -21.1  235  42 21   8.8   4.8
 25000 -26.1 -15.0  265  44 23   8.9   4.9 | -26.9 -16.4  235  41 21   8.8   4.8
 24000 -23.8 -10.8  265  46 24   5.0   2.8 | -24.4 -11.9  235  40 21   7.1   3.9
 23000 -22.2  -8.0  260  46 24   5.5   3.0 | -22.2  -8.0  235  37 19   7.2   3.9
 22000 -20.5  -4.9  260  45 23   5.5   3.0 | -20.1  -4.2  240  34 18   7.2   4.0
 21000 -18.9  -2.0  260  43 22   5.9   3.2 | -18.1  -0.6  245  31 16   6.2   3.4
 20000 -17.2   1.0  255  36 18   5.9   3.2 | -15.7   3.7  255  25 13   6.3   3.5
 19500 -16.3   2.7  255  32 17   5.9   3.2 | -14.8   5.4  255  23 12   6.3   3.5
 19000 -15.4   4.3  255  29 15   5.6   3.1 | -13.9   7.0  260  21 11   6.3   3.5
 18500 -13.8   7.2  255  26 13   8.3   4.5 | -12.9   8.8  265  19 10   6.3   3.5
 18000 -12.5   9.5  255  25 13   8.3   4.5 | -12.0  10.4  270  17  9   6.3   3.5
 17500 -11.3  11.7  255  24 12   8.8   4.9 | -11.0  12.2  270  16  8   7.0   3.8
 17000 -10.0  14.0  255  24 12   8.8   4.8 | -10.0  14.0  275  15  8   7.1   3.9
 16500  -8.6  16.5  255  23 12   9.3   5.1 |  -9.0  15.8  275  15  8   7.8   4.3
 16000  -7.2  19.0  250  23 12   9.6   5.3 |  -7.7  18.1  280  15  8   8.7   4.8
 15500  -5.7  21.7  250  23 12   9.7   5.3 |  -6.4  20.5  280  15  8   8.8   4.8
 15000  -4.3  24.3  250  23 12   9.7   5.3 |  -4.9  23.2  280  15  8  10.1   5.6
 14500  -2.8  27.0  250  22 12   9.7   5.3 |  -3.4  25.9  280  15  8  10.1   5.5
 14000  -1.3  29.7  250  22 11   9.8   5.4 |  -2.0  28.4  280  15  8   9.7   5.3
 13500   0.1  32.2  250  22 11   9.8   5.4 |  -0.5  31.1  275  15  8   9.7   5.3
 13000   1.6  34.9  250  22 11   9.5   5.2 |   0.9  33.6  275  15  8   9.1   5.0
 12500   3.0  37.4  250  21 11   9.4   5.2 |   2.3  36.1  275  15  8   9.0   4.9
 12000   4.4  39.9  250  21 11   9.7   5.3 |   3.6  38.5  270  15  8   9.2   5.0
 11500   5.9  42.6  250  21 11   9.8   5.4 |   5.0  41.0  265  15  8   9.2   5.0
 11000   7.3  45.1  250  21 11   9.9   5.4 |   6.3  43.3  260  15  8   9.4   5.1
 10500   8.8  47.8  250  20 10  10.0   5.5 |   7.8  46.0  255  15  8   9.9   5.4
 10250   9.6  49.3  250  20 10   9.6   5.3 |   8.5  47.3  255  15  8   8.7   4.8
 10000  10.3  50.5  250  20 10   9.5   5.2 |   9.1  48.4  250  15  8   8.4   4.6
  9750  11.0  51.8  250  20 10   9.9   5.4 |   9.8  49.6  250  15  8   9.6   5.3
  9500  11.7  53.1  250  19 10   9.3   5.1 |  10.5  50.9  245  15  8   8.7   4.8
  9250  12.4  54.3  250  19 10  11.1   6.1 |  11.2  52.2  245  16  8  11.2   6.1
  9000  13.3  55.9  245  19 10  10.9   6.0 |  12.1  53.8  240  16  8  10.7   5.9
  8750  14.0  57.2  245  19 10   9.0   4.9 |  12.7  54.9  235  16  8   8.0   4.4
  8500  14.7  58.5  245  19 10   9.3   5.1 |  13.3  55.9  235  16  8   8.5   4.7
  8250  15.4  59.7  245  18  9   9.9   5.4 |  14.0  57.2  230  16  8   9.2   5.1
  8000  16.2  61.2  245  18  9  10.6   5.8 |  14.7  58.5  230  16  8  10.4   5.7
  7750  17.0  62.6  245  18  9   9.9   5.4 |  15.5  59.9  225  16  8   9.5   5.2
  7500  17.7  63.9  245  18  9   9.4   5.1 |  16.1  61.0  225  16  8   8.6   4.7
  7250  18.4  65.1  240  17  9  10.4   5.7 |  16.8  62.2  220  16  8   9.5   5.2
  7000  19.2  66.6  240  17  9  11.7   6.4 |  17.5  63.5  220  15  8  10.4   5.7
  6750  20.1  68.2  240  16  8  10.1   5.6 |  18.3  64.9  215  14  7   9.8   5.4
  6500  20.9  69.6  240  15  8  14.2   7.8 |  19.0  66.2  215  13  7   9.1   5.0
  6250     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, at approximately 730 AM and 730 PM local 
time. It is not continuously monitored nor updated after its initial 
issuance. 

The information contained herein is based on numerical weather prediction
model data for the Moriarty Municipal Airport site in Moriarty, New Mexico at

                   North Latitude:  34.9781667 deg
                   West Longitude: 106.0000278 deg
                   Elevation: 6204.2 feet (1891.0 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along and east of the Sandia
and Manzano Mountains. Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments are welcome and should be directed
to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this page.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive 
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of 
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it 
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above 
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain 
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger 
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of 
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158 
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions. 

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the 
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel's initial temperature is the forecast maximum 
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It 
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures 
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet 
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.  

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.
  
Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights: 
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the 
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor  

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which 
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough 
     movements.

042613