National Weather Service United States Department of Commerce

Expanding Heat Wave; Heavy Rainfall Across the Upper Midwest and Gulf Coast; Snow for the Northern Rockies; Critical Fire Weather for Southwest

Diverse pattern across the country with accumulating heavy wet snow across the northern Rockies into the new week. Meanwhile, deep tropical moisture is expected to move ashore across the Gulf Coast States with the threat of heavy rainfall. This threat extends into the upper Midwest where flash flooding and a few severe storms. In addition, a heat wave is building from the Plains into Northeast. Read More >


1) Cap - A term used to describe a layer in the atmosphere where temperature increases with height. A cap acts as a lid which inhibits the development of thunderstorms. A strong cap will suppress clouds altogether; a weak cap allows stronger updrafts to develop, possibly into thunderstorms.

2) Dewpoint - The temperature to which the air must cool in order to be 100 percent saturated. The higher the dewpoint the more moisture present in the atmosphere. Dewpoints 50 degrees and above are usually enough for severe thunderstorm development. When the dewpoint is within 5 degrees of the temperature, fog is a possibility.

3) Funnel cloud - A rotating column of air not in contact with the ground, extending from a towering cumulus or cumulonimbus base. Funnel clouds are found at the rear of the storm, usually from a wall cloud.

4) Gust front - The leading edge of the thunderstorm downdraft. The gust front is most prominent beneath the rain-free base and on the leading edge of an approaching thunderstorm. It often precedes the thunderstorm precipitation by several minutes. Shelf and roll clouds sometimes accompany gust fronts, especially when the gust front precedes a line of thunderstorms.

5) Mammatus - Hanging rounded protuberances or pouches seen on the underside of the thunderstorm anvil. These clouds do not produce severe weather.

6) Relative humidity - The percent of moisture present in the atmosphere in relation to the amount of moisture the atmosphere can hold at the present temperature.

7) Roll cloud - A low-level, horizontal, tube shaped accessory cloud completely detached from the thunderstorm base. It is located along the gust front and most frequently on the leading edge of a line of thunderstorms. Roll clouds are not and do not produce tornadoes.

8) Scud cloud - Low ragged and wind-torn appearing cloud fragments, usually not attached to the thunderstorm base, often seen in association with, and behind gust fronts. Scud clouds DO NOT produce severe weather. Scud clouds are often mistaken for wall clouds and tornadoes, especially when attached to the thunderstorm base. A way to differentiate scud clouds from wall clouds is to watch their relative position with respect to the rain area: scud clouds move away from the rain area while wall clouds maintain the same relative distance.

9) Severe Thunderstorm - Thunderstorms which contain one or more of the following features: winds over 50 knots (58 miles per hour), 3/4 inch or larger hail, funnel clouds, or tornadoes.

10) Shelf cloud - A low-level horizontal wedge-shaped accessory cloud, usually attached to the thunderstorm base, that forms along the gust front. The leading edge of the shelf cloud is often smooth and at times layered or terraced while the underside is concave upward and appears turbulent, boiling, or wind-torn. Tornadoes rarely occur with shelf clouds. Remember that shelf clouds are usually found on the leading edge of an approaching thunderstorm.

11) Stability - A measure of the atmosphere's ability to develop and sustain rising currents of air. A "Stability Index" usually compares the temperature and moisture in the lower atmosphere with that of the upper atmosphere. Warm, moist air in the lower atmosphere, and cold air in the upper atmosphere, all contribute to more unstable conditions.

12) Tornado - A violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, usually found in the southwest quadrant of the storm. Tornadoes are usually pendant from wall clouds or directly from the thunderstorm base, within a few miles to the southwest of the precipitation shaft. Tornadoes are still called tornadoes even after they lift off the ground. The MAJORITY of tornadoes are found at the REAR of the storm.

13) Virga - Wisps or streaks of rain falling out of a cloud but not reaching the ground. When seen from a distance these streaks can be mistaken for funnels or tornadoes.

14) Wall cloud - A local and often abrupt lowering of a rain-free cumulonimbus base, either rotating or non-rotating, from 1 to 4 miles in diameter, and usually situated in the southwest portion of the storm. Wall clouds are found in the rear of the storm; NEVER on the leading edge.

15) Warning - A warning is issued by the local Weather Wervice Office when severe weather has developed in the area. They are statements of imminent danger and are for relatively small areas. Warnings are issued for severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, or flash floods. The MSP Weather Service also issues "Very Severe Thunderstorm Warnings" when they expect winds in excess of 75 miles per hour (hurricane force winds).

16) Watch - An area in which the National Severe Storms Forecast Center in Kansas City feels conditions are favorable for the development of severe weather. They usually include an area 140 miles wide by 200 miles long and are issued for the potential of severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, or flash floods. A Watch means be aware of the potential for severe weather.



1) Distance to thunderstorm

Count the time from the flash of lightning until you hear thunder. Take this time and divide by 5. This gives approximate distance to thunderstorm in miles.

2) Approximate height of convective clouds

To find the height of convective type clouds take the temperature (F) - dewpoint temperature (F). Multiply this number by 220. This will give approximate height in feet.

3) Approximate dewpoint from temperature and relative humidity

To find dewpoint take temperature x humidity + temperature. Take this result and divide by 2. This will give approximate dewpoint during a typical summer day.

Example: Temp = 80 (F) Relative Humidity = 60%

80 x .60 + 80 = 128. 128/2= 64. Dewpoint= 64


Stability Indices

1) SWEAT Index (Severe Weather Threat Index)

Values under 300......Limited severe thunderstorm potential.

Values 300 thru 400...Severe thunderstorm potential.

Values over 400.......Tornado potential.

2) Total totals

Values under 44..Limited potential for thunderstorms

Values 44-45.....Isolated light thunderstorms.

Values 46-47.....Scattered light/few moderate thunderstorms.

Values 48-49.....Scattered light/few moderate/isolated severe.

Values 50-51.....Scattered moderate/few severe/isolated tornado.

Values 52-55.....Numerous moderate/few severe/few tornado.

Values over 55...Numerous moderate/scattered severe w/tornadoes.

3) Lifted Index

Values over +2.....Limited thunderstorm potential.

Values +2 to -2....Thunderstorm potential.

Values -2 to -6....Severe thunderstorm potential.

Values under -6....Tornado potential.


Return to the Skywarn Page.
Return to the WFO Dodge City Home Page