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Showers and Storms in the Northern Rockies; Localized Flooding in the Southeast

Isolated severe storms and localized flash flooding are possible over parts of the central and northern Rockies into the northern High Plains. Heavy rainfall may lead to localized instances of flooding from Florida to the Carolinas. Read More >

ENSO Indices


ENSO Regions


Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)
standardized anomaly of the mean sea level pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin

  • traditional ENSO index

  • correlates strongly with SST anomaly indices

NOAA Oceanic Niño Index (ONI)
sea surface temperature anomaly index for Niño 3.4 (5°N to 5°S, 170°W to 120°W)

  • onset of El Niño declared when Niño 3.4 anomaly exceeds +0.5°C for 3-month period

  • to be "full-fledged" El Niño (or La Niña), onset conditions must be met for 5 consecutive 3-month periods

Japanese Meteorological Agency ENSO Index (JMA)
sea surface temperature anomaly index for Niño 3 (4°N to 4°S, 150°W to 90°W)

  • less noisy than traditional SOI and more vigorous than NOAA ONI

  • anomalies must exceed 0.5°C for 6 consecutive 5-month periods

Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI)
weighted anomaly average of 6 meteorological variables in the tropical Pacific

  • sea surface temperature

  • sea level pressure

  • surface air temperature

  • components of surface wind

    • zonal component

    • meridional component

  • total cloudiness fraction of the sky