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Wet Pattern Out West; Wintry Weather in Central U.S. headed into the Northeast

A series of weather warm weather systems will produce rain, heavy at times, which when combined with high snow levels, could lead to flooding and flash floods across northern California and the Pacific Northwest. A slow moving system will spread wintry conditions towards the Appalachians and Northeast, with areas of heavy rain into the Mid-Atlantic. Read More >

 

 Grand Junction Soaring Forecast

We are testing a new soaring forecast program. During this testing phase, the soaring forecast may not always be available or may not be updated. Please check the date of the soaring forecast before using the data. Feedback to our webmaster regarding this new soaring forecast program will be appreciated.

 


000
UXUS97 KGJT 241332
SRGGJT

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Grand Junction, Colorado
0632 MST Friday, January 24, 2020

This forecast is for Friday, January 24, 2020:

If the trigger temperature of 46.8 F/8.2 C is reached...then
Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
Maximum height of thermals.................. 6397 ft MSL (1558 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 34.0 F/1.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 01/25..... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

***ATTENTION Soaring Forecast Users***The National Weather Service in Boulder wants to hear from you.
Please send and email to paul.t.schlatter@noaa.gov and let us know how you use the Soaring Forecast. Thanks!

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:27:13 / 17:25:07 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 57 min 54 sec (597 min 54 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:26:10 MST... 31.37 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 01/24/2020 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 4839 ft MSL (0 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13944 ft MSL (9105 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 7038 ft MSL (2198 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +17.0
K index......................... -5.7

Height Temperature Wind Wind Spd Lapse Rate ConvectionT Thermal Lift Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F Dir kt m/s C/km F/kft deg C deg F Index fpm m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
50000 -60.4 -76.7 315 26 13 -2.6 -1.4 101.2 214.2 56.9 M M
45000 -56.0 -68.8 285 44 23 -0.9 -0.5 82.8 181.0 49.8 M M
40000 -55.8 -68.4 295 62 32 -14.1 -7.8 60.1 140.1 38.5 M M
38000 -59.2 -74.6 300 46 24 -11.9 -6.5 46.1 115.1 30.2 M M
36000 -57.5 -71.5 300 62 32 7.4 4.1 40.0 103.9 26.8 M M
34000 -52.8 -63.0 300 65 33 8.8 4.9 38.4 101.1 26.4 M M
32000 -47.7 -53.9 305 51 26 7.5 4.1 36.2 97.2 25.6 M M
30000 -42.8 -45.0 310 45 23 8.6 4.7 35.1 95.2 25.4 M M
29000 -40.3 -40.5 310 44 23 8.6 4.7 34.5 94.2 25.3 M M
28000 -37.7 -35.9 305 43 22 8.6 4.7 34.1 93.4 25.3 M M
27000 -35.0 -31.0 305 42 22 9.2 5.1 33.8 92.9 25.4 M M
26000 -32.3 -26.1 300 42 21 8.7 4.8 33.6 92.6 25.5 M M
25000 -29.8 -21.6 300 41 21 8.4 4.6 33.2 91.7 25.4 M M
24000 -27.9 -18.2 300 42 22 5.9 3.2 31.8 89.3 24.6 M M
23000 -26.1 -15.0 300 41 21 6.2 3.4 30.5 86.9 23.8 M M
22000 -23.9 -11.0 305 41 21 7.7 4.2 29.6 85.3 23.3 M M
21000 -21.7 -7.1 305 40 21 7.0 3.9 28.8 83.9 22.9 M M
20000 -19.5 -3.1 305 34 18 6.9 3.8 27.9 82.2 22.5 M M
19500 -18.5 -1.3 305 33 17 6.7 3.7 27.3 81.2 22.1 M M
19000 -17.5 0.5 310 31 16 6.8 3.8 26.8 80.2 21.8 M M
18500 -16.5 2.3 310 30 15 8.4 4.6 26.3 79.3 21.5 M M
18000 -15.2 4.6 310 30 15 7.3 4.0 26.1 79.0 21.5 M M
17500 -14.1 6.6 310 30 15 5.8 3.2 25.6 78.1 21.2 M M
17000 -12.9 8.8 310 29 15 4.7 2.6 24.5 76.2 20.4 M M
16500 -12.5 9.5 310 29 15 3.1 1.7 23.4 74.1 19.4 M M
16000 -11.9 10.6 310 29 15 4.5 2.5 22.4 72.4 18.7 M M
15500 -11.3 11.7 315 28 15 4.7 2.6 21.5 70.7 17.9 M M
15000 -10.4 13.3 320 28 14 5.4 2.9 20.8 69.4 17.5 M M
14500 -9.6 14.7 325 25 13 5.0 2.7 20.0 68.0 16.9 M M
14000 -8.9 16.0 330 23 12 4.6 2.5 19.2 66.6 16.3 M M
13500 -8.3 17.1 335 21 11 4.8 2.6 18.3 65.0 15.5 M M
13000 -7.5 18.5 340 19 10 5.7 3.1 17.6 63.7 14.8 M M
12500 -6.7 19.9 335 17 9 4.3 2.3 17.0 62.5 14.2 M M
12000 -7.0 19.4 325 15 8 -6.2 -3.4 15.1 59.2 12.6 M M
11500 -7.2 19.0 325 12 6 4.9 2.7 13.3 56.0 11.0 M M
11000 -6.4 20.5 330 8 4 5.8 3.2 12.6 54.7 10.4 M M
10500 -5.9 21.4 335 5 3 0.4 0.2 11.7 53.0 9.5 M M
10250 -5.9 21.4 340 4 2 0.9 0.5 10.9 51.6 8.8 M M
10000 -5.7 21.7 050 2 1 4.3 2.4 10.3 50.6 8.2 M M
9750 -5.3 22.5 090 1 1 5.8 3.2 10.0 50.0 8.0 M M
9500 -4.9 23.2 160 1 1 5.4 3.0 9.7 49.4 7.7 M M
9250 -4.5 23.9 180 3 1 5.5 3.0 9.3 48.8 7.3 M M
9000 -4.1 24.6 190 4 2 5.5 3.0 9.0 48.2 7.0 M M
8750 -3.7 25.3 175 4 2 5.4 3.0 8.6 47.6 6.7 M M
8500 -3.3 26.1 160 4 2 5.5 3.0 8.3 47.0 6.4 M M
8250 -2.9 26.8 145 5 3 5.3 2.9 8.0 46.4 6.1 M M
8000 -2.5 27.5 135 6 3 6.2 3.4 7.7 45.8 5.8 M M
7750 -2.1 28.2 140 7 4 2.6 1.5 7.3 45.2 5.5 M M
7500 -2.1 28.2 140 8 4 -1.0 -0.6 6.5 43.8 4.7 M M
7250 -2.2 28.0 145 9 5 -1.2 -0.6 5.7 42.3 3.9 M M
7000 -2.2 28.0 145 10 5 1.8 1.0 5.0 40.9 3.2 M M
6750 -2.3 27.9 145 10 5 -9.7 -5.3 4.2 39.5 2.4 M M
6500 -3.4 25.9 145 9 5 -11.5 -6.3 2.2 36.0 0.5 M M
6250 -3.5 25.7 150 9 4 5.7 3.1 1.4 34.5 -0.3 180 0.9
6000 -3.0 26.6 150 8 4 8.1 4.4 1.2 34.2 -0.4 156 0.8
5750 -2.4 27.7 150 7 3 7.4 4.1 1.1 33.9 -0.6 132 0.7
5500 -1.9 28.6 145 5 3 7.7 4.2 0.9 33.6 -0.8 108 0.6
5250 -1.3 29.7 135 4 2 7.4 4.1 0.7 33.3 -1.0 84 0.4
5000 -0.8 30.6 115 2 1 8.2 4.5 0.6 33.1 -1.2 60 0.3

* * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

01/24/2020 at 0800 MST | 01/24/2020 at 1100 MST
|
CAPE... 0.0 LI... +6.3 | CAPE... 0.0 LI... +6.0
CINH... -0.0 K Index... -0.0 | CINH... -0.1 K Index... +5.5
|
Height Temperature Wnd WndSpd Lapse Rate | Temperature Wnd WndSpd Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F Dir kt m/s C/km F/kft | deg C deg F Dir kt m/s C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
50000 -58.3 -72.9 295 14 7 2.1 1.2 | -57.6 -71.7 275 12 6 2.4 1.3
45000 -55.1 -67.2 290 20 10 1.1 0.6 | -54.0 -65.2 270 18 9 0.4 0.2
40000 -54.5 -66.1 280 27 14 0.4 0.2 | -53.1 -63.6 270 25 13 0.6 0.3
38000 -54.3 -65.7 280 29 15 0.5 0.3 | -53.3 -63.9 270 28 14 -1.1 -0.6
36000 -54.0 -65.2 280 30 15 0.5 0.3 | -53.9 -65.0 265 31 16 -1.1 -0.6
34000 -52.9 -63.2 280 30 16 7.4 4.0 | -54.0 -65.2 265 33 17 8.1 4.5
32000 -48.6 -55.5 280 28 14 7.2 3.9 | -49.0 -56.2 260 31 16 7.4 4.0
30000 -44.1 -47.4 285 26 13 8.5 4.6 | -44.5 -48.1 260 28 15 8.3 4.5
29000 -41.6 -42.9 290 25 13 8.5 4.7 | -42.0 -43.6 260 27 14 8.3 4.5
28000 -39.0 -38.2 290 24 12 8.5 4.7 | -39.5 -39.1 260 25 13 8.3 4.5
27000 -36.5 -33.7 290 22 12 8.5 4.7 | -37.1 -34.8 265 24 12 8.2 4.5
26000 -33.9 -29.0 295 22 11 8.5 4.7 | -34.7 -30.5 265 22 11 8.1 4.4
25000 -30.7 -23.3 295 22 11 8.5 4.7 | -32.3 -26.1 270 21 11 8.1 4.4
24000 -28.2 -18.8 295 22 11 7.5 4.1 | -29.9 -21.8 275 20 10 8.0 4.4
23000 -26.1 -15.0 300 20 10 7.1 3.9 | -27.6 -17.7 275 18 9 7.6 4.2
22000 -24.0 -11.2 300 18 9 7.1 3.9 | -25.3 -13.5 280 17 9 7.6 4.2
21000 -22.0 -7.6 300 17 9 6.5 3.5 | -23.1 -9.6 280 16 8 7.2 3.9
20000 -20.0 -4.0 300 16 8 6.5 3.6 | -20.5 -4.9 285 15 8 6.9 3.8
19500 -19.0 -2.2 300 16 8 6.5 3.6 | -19.5 -3.1 285 14 7 6.9 3.8
19000 -18.1 -0.6 300 15 8 6.5 3.6 | -18.5 -1.3 290 14 7 6.9 3.8
18500 -17.1 1.2 300 15 8 6.6 3.6 | -17.5 0.5 290 13 7 6.5 3.5
18000 -16.1 3.0 300 15 8 6.6 3.6 | -16.5 2.3 290 13 7 6.5 3.5
17500 -15.1 4.8 300 15 8 6.6 3.6 | -15.6 3.9 295 13 7 6.6 3.6
17000 -14.1 6.6 305 15 7 6.3 3.5 | -14.6 5.7 295 12 6 6.7 3.7
16500 -13.1 8.4 305 14 7 6.4 3.5 | -13.6 7.5 295 12 6 6.7 3.7
16000 -12.3 9.9 305 14 7 5.2 2.8 | -12.6 9.3 300 12 6 6.3 3.5
15500 -11.5 11.3 305 13 7 5.2 2.9 | -11.6 11.1 300 12 6 6.4 3.5
15000 -10.7 12.7 305 13 7 5.3 2.9 | -10.7 12.7 300 11 6 6.3 3.4
14500 -9.9 14.2 305 12 6 5.4 2.9 | -9.7 14.5 300 11 6 6.2 3.4
14000 -9.1 15.6 305 11 6 5.3 2.9 | -8.8 16.2 300 10 5 5.9 3.2
13500 -8.3 17.1 305 10 5 5.3 2.9 | -7.9 17.8 300 10 5 5.7 3.1
13000 -7.6 18.3 300 9 5 5.2 2.9 | -7.1 19.2 295 9 5 5.5 3.0
12500 -6.9 19.6 300 8 4 5.0 2.7 | -6.3 20.7 290 8 4 5.3 2.9
12000 -6.2 20.8 295 7 4 4.5 2.5 | -5.5 22.1 290 7 4 4.9 2.7
11500 -5.7 21.7 290 6 3 3.3 1.8 | -4.9 23.2 280 6 3 4.4 2.4
11000 -5.2 22.6 280 5 2 3.4 1.9 | -4.3 24.3 270 6 3 4.1 2.2
10500 -4.7 23.5 275 4 2 3.4 1.9 | -3.8 25.2 260 5 3 3.6 2.0
10250 -4.5 23.9 270 4 2 3.6 2.0 | -3.6 25.5 255 5 2 3.6 2.0
10000 -4.3 24.3 260 3 2 2.9 1.6 | -3.4 25.9 250 5 2 2.4 1.3
9750 -4.1 24.6 260 3 2 3.0 1.7 | -3.2 26.2 245 4 2 2.5 1.4
9500 -3.8 25.2 250 3 1 3.8 2.1 | -3.0 26.6 240 4 2 3.4 1.9
9250 -3.6 25.5 235 2 1 3.6 2.0 | -2.8 27.0 230 4 2 3.3 1.8
9000 -3.3 26.1 220 2 1 3.5 1.9 | -2.5 27.5 225 4 2 3.5 1.9
8750 -3.1 26.4 205 2 1 2.8 1.5 | -2.3 27.9 215 3 2 2.6 1.4
8500 -2.9 26.8 190 2 1 2.2 1.2 | -2.2 28.0 205 3 2 1.7 0.9
8250 -2.7 27.1 175 2 1 2.8 1.5 | -2.0 28.4 195 3 2 2.6 1.4
8000 -2.5 27.5 170 2 1 3.6 2.0 | -1.8 28.8 190 3 2 3.6 2.0
7750 -2.0 28.4 160 2 1 2.5 1.4 | -1.5 29.3 185 3 2 3.0 1.7
7500 -1.8 28.8 155 2 1 2.9 1.6 | -1.3 29.7 180 3 2 2.3 1.3
7250 -1.6 29.1 155 2 1 3.1 1.7 | -1.2 29.8 170 3 2 2.5 1.4
7000 -1.4 29.5 155 2 1 2.7 1.5 | -1.0 30.2 170 3 1 2.0 1.1
6750 -1.2 29.8 150 2 1 2.3 1.2 | -0.8 30.6 165 3 1 3.4 1.9
6500 -1.0 30.2 145 2 1 2.1 1.1 | -0.5 31.1 160 2 1 5.5 3.0
6250 -0.8 30.6 140 2 1 2.6 1.4 | 0.4 32.7 155 1 1 5.1 2.8
6000 -0.7 30.7 130 1 1 0.7 0.4 | 0.8 33.4 150 1 0 8.3 4.6
5750 -0.9 30.4 120 1 1 -6.5 -3.6 | 1.7 35.1 145 1 0 16.3 8.9
5500 -1.6 29.1 075 1 0 -11.9 -6.6 | 2.6 36.7 000 0 0 2.6 1.4
5250 M M M M M M M | M M M M M M M
5000 M M M M M M M | M M M M M M M

01/24/2020 at 1400 MST | 01/24/2020 at 1700 MST
|
CAPE... 0.0 LI... +5.4 | CAPE... +0.1 LI... +4.0
CINH... -0.1 K Index... +14.2 | CINH... 0.0 K Index... +18.7
|
Height Temperature Wnd WndSpd Lapse Rate | Temperature Wnd WndSpd Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F Dir kt m/s C/km F/kft | deg C deg F Dir kt m/s C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
50000 -57.0 -70.6 265 14 7 2.6 1.4 | -56.7 -70.1 275 14 7 2.8 1.6
45000 -53.1 -63.6 265 20 10 1.9 1.0 | -52.4 -62.3 270 20 10 2.2 1.2
40000 -51.3 -60.3 270 24 12 1.1 0.6 | -50.6 -59.1 275 20 11 1.1 0.6
38000 -51.6 -60.9 265 27 14 -2.0 -1.1 | -50.4 -58.7 270 21 11 -0.7 -0.4
36000 -52.8 -63.0 260 31 16 -2.0 -1.1 | -50.9 -59.6 270 22 11 -0.7 -0.4
34000 -53.5 -64.3 255 35 18 7.0 3.8 | -51.1 -60.0 265 23 12 2.8 1.6
32000 -49.8 -57.6 255 34 18 6.2 3.4 | -49.0 -56.2 260 25 13 3.5 1.9
30000 -45.9 -50.6 250 33 17 8.4 4.6 | -46.8 -52.2 255 26 13 6.7 3.7
29000 -43.4 -46.1 250 32 16 8.2 4.5 | -44.7 -48.5 255 25 13 6.8 3.7
28000 -41.0 -41.8 255 30 16 8.2 4.5 | -42.7 -44.9 255 24 12 6.8 3.7
27000 -38.5 -37.3 255 29 15 8.2 4.5 | -40.7 -41.3 255 23 12 6.6 3.6
26000 -36.1 -33.0 255 27 14 7.9 4.4 | -38.3 -36.9 255 22 11 8.3 4.6
25000 -33.1 -27.6 260 25 13 7.9 4.4 | -35.2 -31.4 255 20 10 8.3 4.6
24000 -30.8 -23.4 260 23 12 7.9 4.3 | -32.7 -26.9 260 18 9 8.4 4.6
23000 -28.5 -19.3 265 21 11 7.7 4.2 | -30.2 -22.4 260 17 9 8.6 4.7
22000 -26.2 -15.2 265 19 10 7.7 4.2 | -27.6 -17.7 265 17 9 8.6 4.7
21000 -23.9 -11.0 270 17 9 7.4 4.1 | -25.1 -13.2 270 16 8 7.9 4.4
20000 -21.7 -7.1 270 16 8 7.4 4.1 | -22.8 -9.0 270 15 8 7.7 4.2
19500 -20.6 -5.1 270 15 8 7.4 4.1 | -21.6 -6.9 275 15 8 7.7 4.2
19000 -19.5 -3.1 270 15 8 7.4 4.1 | -20.5 -4.9 275 15 8 7.7 4.2
18500 -18.4 -1.1 270 14 7 6.8 3.7 | -19.3 -2.7 275 15 8 7.3 4.0
18000 -17.5 0.5 275 14 7 6.4 3.5 | -18.3 -0.9 275 15 8 7.0 3.8
17500 -16.5 2.3 275 13 7 6.4 3.5 | -17.3 0.9 275 15 8 7.0 3.8
17000 -15.6 3.9 275 12 6 6.2 3.4 | -16.3 2.7 275 15 8 6.6 3.6
16500 -14.7 5.5 280 11 6 6.2 3.4 | -15.3 4.5 270 15 8 6.6 3.6
16000 -13.8 7.2 280 11 6 6.0 3.3 | -14.4 6.1 270 15 8 5.8 3.2
15500 -12.9 8.8 280 10 5 6.0 3.3 | -13.6 7.5 270 14 7 5.7 3.1
15000 -12.0 10.4 285 10 5 6.5 3.6 | -12.7 9.1 265 14 7 5.5 3.0
14500 -10.9 12.4 285 9 5 6.8 3.7 | -11.9 10.6 265 13 7 5.3 2.9
14000 -9.9 14.2 285 9 5 6.7 3.7 | -11.2 11.8 265 12 6 5.4 3.0
13500 -8.9 16.0 285 9 5 6.4 3.5 | -10.3 13.5 265 11 6 5.7 3.1
13000 -7.9 17.8 280 9 4 6.3 3.4 | -9.5 14.9 265 11 5 5.7 3.1
12500 -7.0 19.4 275 8 4 5.8 3.2 | -8.6 16.5 265 10 5 6.0 3.3
12000 -6.2 20.8 275 8 4 5.7 3.1 | -7.7 18.1 265 9 5 6.0 3.3
11500 -5.4 22.3 265 8 4 5.2 2.8 | -6.9 19.6 265 9 4 6.0 3.3
11000 -4.6 23.7 260 7 4 5.0 2.7 | -6.0 21.2 265 8 4 6.1 3.4
10500 -4.0 24.8 255 7 4 4.2 2.3 | -5.0 23.0 260 7 4 6.4 3.5
10250 -3.7 25.3 255 7 3 4.5 2.5 | -4.5 23.9 260 7 4 6.9 3.8
10000 -3.4 25.9 250 7 3 3.4 1.9 | -4.0 24.8 255 7 3 4.9 2.7
9750 -3.2 26.2 250 6 3 3.2 1.8 | -3.7 25.3 255 6 3 4.7 2.6
9500 -2.9 26.8 250 6 3 4.3 2.3 | -3.3 26.1 255 6 3 6.6 3.6
9250 -2.6 27.3 245 6 3 4.0 2.2 | -2.8 27.0 250 6 3 6.1 3.3
9000 -2.4 27.7 245 5 3 4.0 2.2 | -2.4 27.7 250 5 3 6.6 3.6
8750 -2.1 28.2 240 5 3 3.7 2.0 | -1.9 28.6 250 5 3 4.6 2.5
8500 -1.8 28.8 240 4 2 3.6 2.0 | -1.7 28.9 250 4 2 2.8 1.5
8250 -1.6 29.1 235 4 2 3.6 2.0 | -1.5 29.3 245 4 2 3.4 1.9
8000 -1.3 29.7 230 4 2 3.9 2.2 | -1.2 29.8 245 3 2 4.1 2.3
7750 -0.9 30.4 230 3 2 1.9 1.0 | -0.7 30.7 245 2 1 2.2 1.2
7500 -0.7 30.7 230 2 1 2.9 1.6 | -0.5 31.1 240 2 1 3.0 1.7
7250 -0.5 31.1 240 2 1 3.1 1.7 | -0.3 31.5 245 1 1 3.4 1.9
7000 -0.2 31.6 255 2 1 4.4 2.4 | -0.0 32.0 255 1 1 3.3 1.8
6750 0.2 32.4 270 2 1 7.0 3.9 | 0.2 32.4 265 1 0 4.0 2.2
6500 0.7 33.3 280 2 1 8.2 4.5 | 0.5 32.9 290 1 0 5.0 2.7
6250 1.4 34.5 290 2 1 8.3 4.5 | 0.9 33.6 315 1 0 5.1 2.8
6000 2.0 35.6 300 2 1 9.3 5.1 | 1.3 34.3 330 1 1 5.3 2.9
5750 2.8 37.0 295 2 1 14.4 7.9 | 1.7 35.1 320 1 0 6.1 3.4
5500 4.1 39.4 300 2 1 19.4 10.6 | 2.1 35.8 330 1 1 4.4 2.4
5250 M M M M M M M | M M M M M M M
5000 M M M M M M M | M M M M M M M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC). It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken at Walker Field in Grand
Junction, Colorado at

North Latitude: 39 deg 07 min 00.001 sec
West Longitude: 108 deg 31 min 59.998 sec
Elevation: 4839 feet (1475 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Western Slope of
Colorado. Note that some elevations in numerical weather prediction models
differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to data which appear
to be below ground. Erroneous data such as these should not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice. Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page. To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
area on a thermodynamic diagram. Units are Joules per kilogram. Larger
values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms. Values around or
greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
a thermodynamic diagram. Units are Joules per kilogram. The more negative
this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection. This
inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
just becomes saturated. It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level. It can be considered a
"trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists. The location and
existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface. Larger
positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
thunderstorm development. One interpretation of K index values regarding
soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
and is reproduced in the following table:

below -10 no or weak thermals
-10 to 5 dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
5 to 15 good soaring conditions
15 to 20 good soaring conditions with occasional showers
20 to 30 excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
probability of showers and thunderstorms
above 30 more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
level. The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
feet of the airmass. Negative values are indicative of instability with
positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals. It is
computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals. It
is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
above the ground. After this computation, further empirical adjustments
are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds. Broken means that
between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
sea level). Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level. Negative values
are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

Maximum rate of lift Adjective Rating
>= 800 fpm Excellent
>= 400 and < 800 fpm Good
>= 200 and < 400 fpm Fair
< 200 fpm Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
soaring into a single index number. Objective points are assigned to
these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
movements.

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